We propose a secure and efficient Cost-Aware SEcure Routing (CASER) protocol for WSNs. In this protocol, cost-aware based routing strategies can be applied to address the message delivery requirements. We devise a quantitative scheme to balance the energy consumption so that both the sensor network lifetime and the total number of messages that can be delivered are maximized under the same energy deployment (ED). We develop theoretical formulas to estimate the number of routing hops in CASER under varying routing energy balance control (EBC) and security requirements. We quantitatively analyze security of the proposed routing algorithm. We provide an optimal non-uniform energy deployment (noED) strategy for the given sensor networks based on the energy consumption ratio. Our theoretical and simulation results both show that under the same total energy deployment, we can increase the lifetime and the number of messages that can be delivered more than four times in the non-uniform energy deployment scenario.
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