ESTAR integrates payment and trust systems with the routing protocol with the goal of enhancing route reliability and stability. We propose a multidimensional trust system based on processing the payment receipts. ESTAR stimulates the nodes not only to relay others’ packets even if they have many credits, but also to stabilize the routes and report their energy capability truthfully to increase their chance to participate in future routes. We propose trust based and energy aware routing protocols to establish stable routes. Unlike most of the existing schemes that aim to identify and mitigate the malicious nodes, ESTAR aims to identify the good nodes and select them in routing. Our routing protocols can improve the packet delivery ratio and route stability.
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