The emergence and the envisioned future of real time and multimedia applications have stimulated the need of high Quality of Service (QoS) support in wireless and mobile networking environments. The QoS support reduces end-to-end transmission delay and enhances throughput to guarantee the seamless communication between mobile devices and wireless infrastructures. In order to enhance the QoS support capability of hybrid networks, in this paper, we propose a QoS-Oriented Distributed routing protocol (QOD). Usually, a hybrid network has widespread base stations. The data transmission in hybrid networks has two features. First, an AP can be a source or a destination to any mobile node. Second, the number of transmission hops between a mobile node and an AP is small. The first feature allows a stream to have any cast transmission along multiple transmission paths to its destination through base stations, and the second feature enables a source node to connect to an AP through an intermediate node. Taking full advantage of the two features, QOD transforms the packet routing problem into a dynamic resource scheduling problem. Specifically, in QOD, if a source node is not within the transmission range of the AP, a source node selects nearby neighbors that can provide QoS services to forward its packets to base stations in a distributed manner. The source node schedules the packet streams to neighbors based on their queuing condition, channel condition, and mobility, aiming to reduce transmission time and increase network capacity. The neighbors then forward packets to base stations, which further forward packets to the destination. Analytical and simulation results based on the random way-point model and the real human mobility model show that QOD can provide high QoS performance in terms of overhead, transmission delay, mobility-resilience, and scalability.
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