IEEE 2013 Embedded Projects

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EMP01 A Robot that Approaches Pedestrians When robots serve in urban areas such as shopping malls, they will often be required to approach people in order to initiate service. This paper presents a technique for human–robot interaction that enables a robot to approach people who are passing through an environment. For successful approach, our proposed planner first searches for a target person at public distance zones anticipating his/her future position and behavior. It chooses a person who does not seem busy and can be reached from a frontal direction. Once the robot successfully approaches the person within the social distance zone, it identifies the person’s reaction and provides a timely response by coordinating its body orientation. The system was tested in a shopping mall and compared with a simple approaching method. The result demonstrates a significant improvement in approaching performance: the simple method was only 35.1% successful, whereas the proposed technique showed a success rate of 55.9%.  2013
EMP02 Front Sensor and GPS-Based Lateral Control of Automated Vehicles This work proposes an automated steering control system for passenger cars. Feasibility of a control strategy based on a front sensor and a Global Positioning System (GPS) has been evaluated using computer simulations. First, the steering angles can be estimated by using the driving data provided by the front sensor and GPS. Second, the road curvature estimator for real-time situation is designed based on its relationship with the steering angle. Third, accurate and real-time estimation of the vehicle’s lateral displacements with respect to the road is accomplished. Finally, a closed-loop controller is used to control the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. The proposed estimation and control algorithms are validated by computer simulation results. They show that this lateral steering control system achieves good and robust performance for vehicles to follow a reference path 2013
EMP03 Adaptive PD Controller Modeled via Support VectorRegression for a Biped Robot. The real-time balance control of an eight link biped robot using a zero moment point (ZMP) dynamic model is difficult due to the processing time of the corresponding equations. To overcome this limitation, an intelligent computing control technique is used. This technique is based on support vector regression (SVR). The method uses the ZMP error and its variation as inputs, and the output is the correction of the robot’s torso necessary for its sagittal balance. The SVR is trained based on simulation data and their performance is verified with a real biped robot. The ZMP is calculated by reading four force sensors placed under each robot’s foot. The gait implemented in this biped is similar to a human gait that is acquired and adapted to the robot’s size. Some experiments are presented, and the results show that the implemented gait combined with the SVR controller can be used to control this biped robot. The SVR controller performs the control in 0.2 ms. 2013
EMP04 A Compact and Compliant     External Pipe-Crawling Robot The focus of this paper is on the practical aspects of design, prototyping, and testing of a compact, compliant external pipe-crawling robot that can inspect a closely spaced bundle of pipes in hazardous environments and areas that are inaccessible to humans. The robot consists of two radially deployable compliant ring actuators that are attached to each other along the longitudinal axis of the pipe by a bidirectional linear actuator. The robot imitates the motion of an inchworm. The novel aspect of the compliant ring actuator is a spring-steel compliant mechanism that converts circumferential motion to radial motion of its multiple gripping pads. Circumferential motion to ring actuators is provided by two shape memory alloy (SMA) wires that are guided by insulating rollers. The design of the compliant mechanism is derived from a radially deployable mechanism. A unique feature of the design is that the compliant mechanism provides the necessary kinematic function within the limited annular space around the pipe and serves as the bias spring for the SMA wires. 2013
EMP05 MSU Jumper: A Single-Motor- Actuated Miniature SteerableJumping Robot The ability to jump is found widely among small animals such as frogs, grasshoppers, and fleas. They jump to overcome large obstacles relative to their small sizes. Inspired by the animals’ jumping capability, a miniature-jumping robot—Michigan State University (MSU) Jumper—has been developed. In this paper, the mechanical design, fabrication, and experimentation of the MSU jumper are presented. The robot can achieve the following three performances simultaneously, which distinguish it from the other existing jumping robots. First, it can perform continuous steerable jumping that is based on the self-righting and the steering capabilities.Second, the robot only requires a single actuator to perform all the functions. Third, the robot has a light Weight (23.5 g) to reduce the damage that results from the impact of landing. Experimental results show that, with a 75 take-off angle, the robot can jump up to 87 cm in vertical height and 90 cm in horizontal distance. The robot has a wide range of applications such as sensor/communication networks, search and rescue, surveillance, and environmental monitoring. 2013
EMP06 Automatic Lighting System Using Multiple Robotic Lamps An automatic lighting system using 3-DOF robotic lamps and a laser scanner is proposed in this paper. The 3-DOF robotic lamp, which is designed with a spherical parallel mechanism with a unique forward kinematic solution, has a tilting motion to track a person and zoom-in and zoom-out motions to control the light intensity. In order to minimize the dynamic load, three actuators are installed at the base frame, and a counterbalancing design is considered. The positions of people are detected by a laser scanner, and the Kalman filter and a data association algorithm are applied in order to track the positions of people accurately. Therefore, multiple robotic lamps can track and illuminate each person continuously. We demonstrate experimentally that three robotic lamps mounted on the ceiling illuminate three people independently and control the intensity of the light according to the distance between a person and the robotic lamp. 2013
EMP07 Automatic Weed Detection System and Smart Herbicide Sprayer Robot for corn fields A vision-based guidance method is presented to guide a robot platform which is designed independently to drive through the crops in a field according to the design concept of open architecture. Then, the offset and heading angle of the robot platform are detected in real time to guide the platform on the basis of recognition of a crop using machine vision. This project is basically developed to implement a number of agricultural production in many countries, such as picking, harvesting, weeding, pruning, planting, grafting, agricultural classification etc 2013
EMP08 Towards a New Modality-Independent Interface for a Robotic Wheelchair In this paper a robotic wheel chair is controlled by two different modes.  In the present Robotic wheel chair designs there are several constraints in controlling the wheel chair and the wheel chair has constraints for people with different disabilities.  In this system the robotic wheel chair is designed by two modes manual mode and automatic mode. In the manual mode the robot can be controlled manually by the user.  In the automatic mode the robotic wheel chair can be controlled automatically by the controller. 2013
EMP09 Self-recognition of Vehicle Position Using UHF Passive RFID Tags During the past 5 years, the UHF passive RFID technology has been widely adopted as a direct response to the needs of the supply chain management. When products affixed with UHF passive RFID tags (“Tag(s)”) are released, they travel from manufacturing plants to warehouses to retail shops. For supply chain management operators, it would be of great interest to be able to detect the current location of such products in real time. In real life applications, since most products are shipped on a ‘Global Positioning System (GPS)’ tracked vehicles, their locations can be readily identified while they are en route. However, in order to identify the current locations of such products in an indoor environment, one needs to either manually record their exact locations or locate the indoor vehicles carrying such products. 2013
EMP10 A Novel Surgical Manipulator with Workspace-Conversion Ability for Tele surgery. This Paper proposes a design of robot that is used in telesurgery. The telerobotic surgical system enables long distance telesurgery, covering the distance between patients and surgeons in remote regions of the world (e.g., in the Antarctic continent). Marescaux successfully performed transatlantic robot-assisted telesurgery using the Zeus system. The surgeons were in New York and the patient was in Strasbourg, France. Arata conducted Japan–Thailand telesurgery experiments with animals using conventional network infrastructures. Using the concept of telesurgery, the Defense Advanced Research Program Agency explored the possibilities of the unmanned surgical operating room for treating wounded soldiers on the battlefield. The unmanned surgical operating room consists of a da Vinci system, a scrub nurse robot arm, and a tool changer. Surgical procedures in battlefields, disaster hit areas, etc., where doctors cannot reach the patients can be performed through this robot proposed in the paper.  These robots increases the distance between the doctors and the patients by enabling control through remote ways. Hence lives can be saved where doctors cannot reach like battlefields, etc., 2013
EMP11 Multiple Working Mode Control of Door-Opening With a Mobile Modular and Reconfigurable Robot As robots enter novel, uncertain home and office environments, they are able to navigate these environments successfully. However, to be practically deployed robots should be able to manipulate their environment to gain access to new spaces, such as by opening a door and operating an elevator. This remains a challenging problem because a robot will encounter doors it has never seen before. Objects such as door handles and elevator buttons, though very different in appearance, are functionally similar. Thus, they share some common features in the way they can be perceived and acted upon. Infer how to manipulate it to open the door. Our system assumes no prior knowledge of the location or shape of the door handle. We also experimentally verify our algorithms on doors not seen in the training set, advancing our work towards being the first to enable our robot to navigate anywhere in a new building by opening doors and elevators, even ones it has not seen before. 2013
EMP12 Robust Adaptive Controller for a Tractor–Trailer Mobile Robot This Paper proposes a design of Tractor Trailer robot. MOBILE robots have attracted much attention in industry and research in recent decades. Various locomotion systems have been proposed for mobile robots in different environments. The wheel is the most popular locomotion mechanism in mobile robotics and man-made vehicles due to its simplicity, efficiency, and flexibility. A wheeled mobile robot (WMR) as a result of nonslip and pure rolling conditions of wheels is subjected to non-holonomic constraints. In classification of kinematics and dynamics models for various types of WMRs has been analyzed. The control of non-holonomic systems is a challenging problem as a result of system inherent characteristics. Highly nonlinear dynamic models, non-square multi input multi output models, under-actuated, and driftless mechanical systems are some of their attributes. Possible motion tasks can be classified into point stabilization, path following, and trajectory tracking. 2013
EMP13 Tank-Like Module-Based Climbing Robot Using Passive Compliant Joints This Paper proposes a design of an tank like climbing robot. CLIMBING robots have been developed to be applied in hazardous and dangerous environments for human beings like exploring, inspecting, and cleaning of high-rise buildings. Since climbing on a vertical wall or on a ceiling works against the direction of gravity, sufficient attachment force (shear resistance and adhesion) is required for climbing robots to maintain their position on the vertical wall. There are several principles to make this attachment force: suction, magnetic force, mechanical interlocking, vortex, and electroadhesives. This robot is designed to achieve high payload and high speed.  Climbing robots have been designed to be used in hazardous terrains.  There are several designs of climbing robots have been developed but each has its own disadvantage.  The proposed system provides a design of tank like robot that overcomes the disadvantages of older designs. 2013
EMP14 Dynamic Ultrasonic Hybrid Localization System for Indoor Mobile Robots There are several ways of navigation of a robot.  Some of the ways of navigation of the robot is by using IR sensors and line following robot in which the robot follows a predefined path.  There are disadvantages of the previous methods of navigation. Localization for autonomous mobile robots is the process of determining and tracking the position and the orientation (i.e., the pose) of the robots in any given environment. Localization is a fundamental technique that allows robots to navigate, explore, or perform their intended tasks successfully without human intervention. The topic of localization has received considerable attention over the past few decades. 2013
EMP15 Minimal Grasper: A Practical Robotic Grasper With Robust Performance for Pick-and-Place Tasks In this paper a flexible grasper is used for Robot grasping and pick-and-place task.  The main characteristic of this robot that it uses a special flexible grasper to pick and place operations that reduces the use of complex mechanisms that reduces the flexibility of the robot and reduce he constraints of the shape of the objects that can be picked by the robot arm.  By using a flexible grasper the friction between the object and the robot arm is being increased. By using this mechanism the success rate of pick and place robots are increased. 2013
EMP16 Omega-Shaped Inchworm-Inspired Crawling Robot With Large-Index-and-Pitch (LIP) SMA Spring Actuators In this paper a new design of robot that overcomes the disadvantages of the present of system design of robot is presented.  Many present robot designs are inspired from the movement of animals in the animal kingdom.  Likewise this design is inspired from the inchworm. The major disadvantages of present robot designs are they can move only in specific terrains. This inchworm inspired robot can overcome these constraints.  This robot designed in this manner has the capability to work in all terrains.  And helpful in rescue operations in disaster hit areas. 2013
EMP17 Customized Ultra High Frequency Radio FrequencyIdentification Tags and Reader Antennas  Enabling Reliable

Mobile Robot Navigation

Passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an emerging technology increasingly adopted in many contexts, even quite far from the canonical ones basically related to logistics and product tracking. Identification of goods containing liquid or made of metal, RFID-based sensor data transmission, monitoring of small items, are only a few of the many possible examples. Indeed, an RFID system is a very cost-effective technology allowing the automatic of a labeled object/animal/person and consists of two a reader (or interrogator) with energization and interrogation functions and a tag (or transponder) which is a rather inexpensive and passive device which, once powered by the reader signal, transmits back its unique identification data (ID). 2013
EMP18 Smart  Host Microcontroller for Optimal Battery Charging in a Solar-Powered Robotic Vehicle This paper focuses on the design and construction of an optimization charging system for Li–Po batteries by means of tracked solar panels. Thus, the implementation of a complete energy management system applied to a robotic exploration vehicle is put forward. The proposed system was tested on the VANTER robotic platform—an autonomous unmanned exploration vehicle specialized in recognition. The interest of this robotic system lies in the design concept, based on a smart host microcontroller. On this basis, our proposal makes a twofold significant contribution. On the one hand, it presents the construction of a solar tracking mechanism aimed at increasing the rover’s power regardless of its mobility. On the other hand, it proposes an alternative design of power system performance based on a pack of two batteries. The aim is completing the process of charging a battery independently while the other battery provides all the energy consumed by the robotic vehicle 2012
EMP19 An Autonomous Robot Based on a wheelchair This paper describes the Rob Chair assistive navigation system. Rob Chair project was conceived with the aim to assist disabled people in the difficult task of  manoeuvring a powered wheelchair. This paper describes the overall hardware and software architecture including the communication system: a friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) which also works as a simulator: and introduces a voice Human Machine Interface (HMI). The system’s architecture follows A behavior based control architecture. 2012
EMP20 Wireless Under Water Mobile Robot System Based on ZigBee In this paper, a wireless underwater mobile robot system is designed in order to study the behavior of Artemia group. A new idea has been presented for underwater mobile robot system which is consists of two parts, first is the underwater mechanical robot and the second is ZigBee wireless based mobile robot which controls and moves the first part. By this system different patterns motion control (Linear, Circular, Zigzag, etc.) has been performed and proved the ability to control group of robot by controlling the group of Artemia. 2012
EMP21 Wireless Vision-based stabilization of Indoor Micro Helicopter This paper presents wireless vision-based stabilization of an indoor microhelicopter via visual simultaneous localization and mapping. The so-called parallel tracking and mapping (PTAM) technique using a small single wireless camera on the helicopter is utilized to detect the position and attitude of the helicopter. We construct the measurement system that is able to calibrate the mapping between local coordinate system in the PTAM and world coordinate system and is able to realize noise detection and elimination. In addition, we design the guaranteed cost (stable) controller for the dynamics of the helicopter via a linear matrix inequality approach. Although path tracking control only via the small single wireless vision sensor is a quite difficult task, the control results demonstrate the utility of our approach. 2012
EMP22 Context Aware Driver Behavior Detection System in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Vehicle Ad hoc Networks (VANET) emerged as an application of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET), which use Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) to allow vehicles in close proximity to communicate with each other, or to communicate with roadside equipment. Applying wireless access technology in vehicular environments has led to the improvement of road safety and a reduction in the number of fatalities caused by road accidents, through the development of road safety applications and facilitating information sharing between moving vehicles regarding the road. This paper focuses on developing a novel and non-intrusive driver behaviour detection system using a context-aware system in VANET to detect abnormal behaviours exhibited by drivers, and to warn other vehicles on the road so as to prevent accidents from happening. A five-layer contextaware architecture is proposed which is able to collect contextual information about the driving environment, perform reasoning about certain and uncertain contextual information and react upon that information. A probabilistic model based on Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBN) for real time inferring four types of driving behaviour (normal, drunk, reckless and fatigue) by combining contextual information about the driver, vehicle and the environment is presented. The dynamic behaviour model can capture the static and the temporal aspects related to the behaviour of the driver, thus, leading to robust and accurate behaviour detection. The evaluation of behaviour detection using synthetic data proves the validity of our model and the importance of including contextual information about the driver, the vehicle and the environment. 2013
EMP23 Safe Maritime Autonomous Navigation With COLREGS Using Velocity Obstacles In recent years, significant technological advancements have increased onboard capabilities of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs), so that their intended mission scenarios now routinely include environments shared with other seagoing traffic. Consequently, as autonomous USVs are operated alongside other manned and unmanned vehicles, they must be able to safely avoid other vessels. In maritime navigation, ships should obey the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (known as COLREGS, for COLlision REGulationS), agreed to by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 1972. These “rules of the road” specify the types of maneuvers that should be taken in situations where there is a risk of collision. When USVs are operated near other vessels, their navigation algorithms must abide by COLREGS, so that the USVs can safely avoid other vessels and the drivers of other vessels can rely on a range of safe behaviors from the USVs.  2013
EMP24 Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR): A State of the Art Review Automatic  license  plate  recognition (ALPR) is  the  extraction  of  vehicle license plate information from an image or a sequence of images. The extracted information can be used with or without a database in many applications, such as electronic payment systems (toll payment, parking fee payment), and freeway and arterial monitoring systems for traffic surveillance. It is fulfilled by the combination of  a lot of techniques, such as object detection, image processing, and pattern recognition. ALPR is also known as automatic vehicle identification, car plate recognition, automatic number plate recognition, and optical character recognition (OCR) for cars. 2013
EMP25 Context-Adaptive Multimodal Wireless Sensor Network for Energy-Efficient Gas Monitoring We present a wireless sensor network (WSN) for monitoring indoor air quality, which is crucial for people’s comfort, health, and safety because they spend a large percentage of time in indoor environments. A major concern in such networks is energy efficiency because gas sensors are power-hungry, and the sensor node must operate unattended for several years on a battery power supply. A system with aggressive energy management at the sensor level, node level, and network level is presented. The node is designed with very low sleep current consumption (only 8 μA), and it contains a metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor and a pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor. Furthermore, the network is multimodal; it exploits information from auxiliary sensors, such as PIR sensors about the presence of people and from the neighbor nodes about gas concentration to modify the behavior of the node and the measuring frequency of the gas concentration. In this way, we reduce the nodes’ activity and energy requirements, while simultaneously providing a reliable service. To evaluate our approach and the benefits of the context-aware adaptive sampling, we simulate an application scenario which demonstrates a significant lifetime extension (several years) compared to the continuously-driven gas sensor. In March 2012, we deployed the WSN with 36 nodes in a four-story building and by now the performance has confirmed models and expectations. 2013
EMP26 Embedded Flexible Force Sensor for In-Situ Tire–Road Interaction Measurements  In-situ sensing the tire–road interactions such as local contact friction force distributions provides crucial information for building accurate friction force models for vehicle safety control. In this paper, we report the development of an embedded, flexible local force sensor for measuring the tire local friction forces and their distributions. A new pressure sensitive, electric conductive rubber (PSECR) sensor is used and embedded inside the tire rubber layer to extract 2013
EMP27 Shared Steering Control Between a Driver and an Automation: Stability in the Presence of Driver Behavior Uncertainty DRIVING is a dangerous activity that can have serious human and economic consequences. According to the statistics, unintended lane departure is the second most frequent type of single light-vehicle accidents. In many cases, the accidents can be attributed to degradation in driver performance, which is caused by such factors as fatigue, drowsiness, or inattention. This fact has motivated major research effort aimed at helping drivers and improving safety, particularly through the use of active systems that have the potential to prevent vehicle accidents. Several advanced assistance systems have been proposed over the last decade to improve vehicle lateral control. Some of them are based on the principle of mutual control between the driver and the automation system. The challenge in designing such human–machine interaction is how to combine the adaptability of humans with the precision of machines because manual control tasks are prone to human error, and fully automated tasks are subject to wide-ranging limitations. 2013
EMP28 An Integrated Health Management Process for Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems Automobile is one of the most widely distributed cyber-physical systems. Over the last few years, the electronic explosion in automotive vehicles has significantly increased the complexity, heterogeneity and interconnectedness of embedded systems. Although designed to sustain long life, systems degrade in performance due to gradual development of anomalies eventually leading to faults. In addition, system usage and operating conditions (e.g., weather, road surfaces, and environment) may lead to different failure modes that can affect the performance of vehicles. Advanced diagnosis and prognosis technologies are needed to quickly detect and isolate faults in network-embedded automotive systems so that proactive corrective maintenance actions can be taken to avoid failures and improve vehicle availability. 2013
EMP29 Traffic Violation Detection Using Multiple Trajectories Evaluation of Vehicles The statistic from many countries showed that high percentage of serious road accident occurred at the road junction due to driver disobeying or red light violating. Based on observation, drivers often change lanes before the stop line, which is one reason that cause traffic accidence and traffic jam. Many researchers developed some systems with advanced technologies for traffic-violation detection in action and taking photography of incidents for records. Those systems comprised of many equipment and devices such as induction coils, radar, ultrasonic, laser, video detection, etc. In comparison with the traditional traffic violation detection technology, the video-based image processing method for  traffic violation detection has many advantages, for example easy maintenance, high accuracy of detection, long life service, real-time detection and inexpensive. 2013
EMP30 Driver Fatigue Detection Using Machine Vision Approach Road users have long been known to fall asleep whilst driving. Driving long hours can induce fatigue causing lack of concentration and occasionally road accidents. Up to 20% of fatal crashes may be linked to driver fatigue. This paper presents a low-cost and simple distributed force sensor that is particularly suitable for measuring grip force and hand position on a steering wheel. The sensor can be used in automotive active safety systems that aim at detecting driver’s fatigue, which is a major issue to prevent road accidents. The key point of our approach is to design a prototype of sensor units, so that it can serve as platform for integrating different kinds of sensors into the steering wheel. 2013
EMP31 Design of Milk Analysis Embedded System for Dairy Farmers In recent years the National Dairy Development Board-initiated cooperative movement has led to a substantial increase in milk production in India. The two main reasons for this increase are the efficient collection of milk and higher profit for the producers, both of which have to some degree been influenced by information technology. The appropriate information technology described in this paper helped to make information symmetric in the market, thereby minimizing problems of adverse selection and tedious work. It is only recently that automation has been introduced into agriculture. In many dairy farms, computer aided control of physiological and sanitary parameters are already used and lead to a productivity increase and the elimination of some tedious operations. 2013
EMP32 Locking and Unlocking of Theft Vehicles Using CAN Avoiding Vehicle Theft is making buzz in present automobile industry. Design and development of a theft control system for an automobile, can be achieved by making use of GPS feature of mobile phone. The developed system makes use of an mobile phone that is embedded in the vehicle with an interfacing to Engine Control Module(ECM) through Control Area Network (CAN) Bus, which is in turn, communicated to the ECM. The vehicle being stolen can be stopped by using GPS feature of mobile phone and this information is used by the owner of the vehicle for future processing. The owner sends the message to the mobile which is embedded in the vehicle which has stolen which in turn controls the vehicles engine by locking the working of the engine immediately. The developed system accept the message and broadcasted to the Vehicle Network through CAN Bus. The engine can be unlocked only by the owner of the vehicle by sending the message again. The goal behind the design is to develop security for vehicles and embedded system to communicate with engine of the vehicle. 2013
EMP33 Design of an Intelligent Electric Vehicle for Blind Independent mobility is a key component in maintaining the physical and psychosocial health of an individual. Further, for people having blind, independent mobility increases vocational and educational opportunities, reduces dependence on caregivers and family members, and promotes feelings of self-reliance. Psychologically, a decrease in mobility can lead to feelings of emotional loss, anxiety, depression, educed self-esteem, social isolation, stress, and fear of abandonment. Even though the benefits of powered mobility are well documented, the safety issues associated with operation of powered vehicles often prevent clinicians and rehabilitation practitioners from prescribing powered mobility. One obstacle to safely operating a vehicle is impaired vision. So we are introducing an intelligent vehicle for blind. 2013
EMP34 Design And Development Of PIC Microcontroller Based Vehicle Monitoring System Using Controller Area Network (CAN) Protocol Controller Area Network (CAN) is an attractive alternative in the automotive and automation industries due to its ease in use, low cost and provided reduction in wiring complexity. It was developed by Robert Bosch for communication between various digital devices inside an automobile where heavy electrical interferences and mechanical vibrations are present. This project is aimed at the implementation of CAN protocol using PIC for vehicle monitoring system. The main feature of the system includes monitoring of various vehicle parameters such as Temperature, presence of CO level in the exhaust, Battery Voltage and Light due to spark or fire. 2013
EMP35 Application of Temperature Compensated Ultrasonic Ranging for Blind Person and Verification Using MATLAB There are various methods to measure the distance of obstacle. One of the methods is by means of ultrasonic. Applications are in the field of remote sensing, mobility aid for blind person, in robotics and self -propelling vehicles. Self propelling vehicles are automatic tools which are useful in industries which are totally dependent on automatic machines. It is evident that the influence of temperature, pressure and humidity on ultrasonic velocity. This paper contains a method to implement a mobility aid for blind person and also can be used in automatic robots, self-propelling vehicles in automated production factories etc. 2013
EMP36 A Tactical Information Management System for Unmanned Vehicles Using Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks With the rapid use of wireless technology, the modern vehicles are increasingly using wireless technology for communication purposes. Among different applications using wireless technology some of the popular applications are hands-free cell phone operation, remote door unlocking, updated navigation, and traffic reporting etc. Although some wireless communications technologies extend beyond a vehicle, such as satellite communications, we will consider them to represent a wireless intra-vehicle communications method. So now we will turn our attention to Bluetooth and satellite services such as satellite radio and satellite-based vehicle services. 2013
EMP37 Autonomous Electric Vehicle Steering and Path-Following Control Systems This paper addresses the path following problem for autonomous Ackermann-like vehicle navigation. A control strategy that takes into account both kinodynamic and configuration space constraints of the vehicle, denoted as Traversability-Anchored Dynamic Path Following (TADPF) controller is presented. It ensures secure vehicle commands in presence of obstacles, based on traversability information given by a global navigation function. By additionally using a reference point on the global smooth path, the local vicinity path configuration with respect to the vehicle is taken explicitly into account to ensure smooth and stable path following. Furthermore, a previously developed Sliding Mode Path Following (SMPF) controller that results in fast convergence rate and low path following error but which does not consider kinodynamic constraints, is augmented by the the kinodynamic and configuration space constraints check of the TADPF controller. The new proposed control strategy denoted as TADPF-SMPF controller thus combines advantageous characteristics of both original control strategies for path following, yielding inherent safety and vehicle dynamics margin. All three control strategies are verified in simulation, whereas the TADPF and TADPFSMPF path following schemes are also verified experimentally. 2012
EMP38 Intelligent Traction Control Model for Speed Sensor Vehicles in Computer-Based Transit System In this paper, a real-time intelligent traction control model for speed sensor vehicles in computer-based transit systems is proposed. Using the Bayesian decision theory, the model analyzes speed sensor data to learn and classify the train traction conditions (i.e., spin/slip, normal, and slide) that are required for studying vehicle motion patterns. The patterns are applied on the sensor input in real-time format to classify train traction and reduce the error/risk of classification that may cause service interruptions and incidents. The model can enable us to manage a number of state natures (i.e., spin/slip, normal, and slide), features (i.e., delta speed and train speed), and prior knowledge traction conditions. This model engine can be implemented in any programming language in onboard or embedded computers. As a result, the impact of noisy sensors (inaccurate data) and its delays in such a hard real-time control system is mitigated. This conceptual model is applied to a case study with promising results for target and simulation systems. 2012
EMP39 Multiple-Target Tracking for Intelligent Headlights Control Intelligent vehicle lighting systems aim at automatically regulate the headlights’ beam angle so as to illuminate as much of the road ahead as possible, while avoiding dazzling other drivers. A key component of such a system is a computer vision software able to distinguish blobs due to vehicles’ head and rear-lights from those originating from road lamps and reflective elements like poles and traffic signs. In a previous work, we have devised a set of specialized supervised classifiers to make such decisions based on blob features related to its intensity and shape. Despite the overall good performance, there remain challenging cases not yet solved which hamper he adoption of such a system: notably, faint and tiny blobs corresponding to quite distant vehicles which disapear and reappear now and then. One reason for the errors in the classification is that it was carried out independently of other frames. Hence, we address the problem by tracking blobs in order to 1) obtain more feature measurements per blob along its track, 2) compute motion features, which we deem relevant for the classification and 3) enforce its temporal consistency. This paper focuses on the problem of constructing blob tracks, which is actually one of multiple target tracking, but under special conditions: we have to deal with frequent occlusions as well as blob splitings and mergings. We approach it in a novel way, by formulating the problem as a maximum a posteriori inference on a Markov random field. We present qualitative (in video form) and quantitative results which show that our new tracking method achieves good tracking results with regard to. 2012