IEEE projects 2014 – 2015, IEEE 2014 – 2013 projects, IEEE Software, java IEEE 2014, 2014 Dot net, Matlab, Embedded, Power electronics, NS2 Projects and Final year Projects.

Bulk ieee projects 2014 – 2015 ieee projects, ieee 2014 – 2013, ieee Projects 2014 for CSE, IT, MCA, EEE, ECE, NS2, java, dot net, Matlab, ieee 2014 Power Electronics, ieee 2014 Embedded Projects, Latest ieee Projects Titles, IEEE 2014 project title list in trichy, chennai, madurai

  • RSS
  • Delicious
  • Digg
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
TECHNOLOGY                                           : JAVA DOMAIN                                                       : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING

 

 

S.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
  1. 1.       

 

Balancing the Trade-Offs between Query Delay and Data Availability in MANETs In This Project, we propose schemes to balance the trade-offs between data availability and query delay under different system settings and requirements. Mobile nodes in one partition are not able to access data hosted by nodes in other partitions, and hence significantly degrade the performance of data access. To deal with this problem, We apply data replication techniques. 2012
  1. 2.       
MeasuRouting: A Framework for Routing Assisted Traffic Monitoring In this paper we present a theoretical framework for MeasuRouting. Furthermore, as proofs-of-concept, we present synthetic and practical monitoring applications to showcase the utility enhancement achieved with MeasuRouting. 2012
  1. 3.       
Cooperative Profit Sharing in Coalition-Based Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks We model Optimal cooperation using the theory of transferable payoff coalitional games. We show that the optimum cooperation strategy, which involves the acquisition, deployment, and allocation of the channels and base stations (to customers), can be computed as the solution of a concave or an integer optimization. We next show that the grand coalition is stable in many different settings. 2012
  1. 4.       
Bloom Cast: Efficient Full-Text Retrieval over Unstructured P2Ps with Guaranteed Recall In this paper we propose Bloom Cast, an efficient and effective full-text retrieval scheme, in unstructured P2P networks. Bloom Cast is effective because it guarantees perfect recall rate with high probability. 2012
  1. 5.       
On Optimizing Overlay Topologies for Search in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks We propose a novel overlay formation algorithm for unstructured P2P networks. Based on the file sharing pattern exhibiting the power-law property, our proposal is unique in that it poses rigorous performance guarantees. 2012
  1. 6.       
An MDP-Based Dynamic Optimization Methodology for Wireless Sensor Networks In this paper, we propose an automated Markov Decision Process (MDP)-based methodology to prescribe optimal sensor node operation to meet application requirements and adapt to changing environmental stimuli. Numerical results confirm the optimality of our proposed methodology and reveal that our methodology more closely meets application requirements compared to other feasible policies. 2012
  1. 7.       
Obtaining Provably Legitimate Internet Topologies In this paper, we address The Internet Topology Problems by providing a framework to generate small, realistic, and policy-aware topologies. We propose HBR, a novel sampling method, which exploits the inherent hierarchy of the policy-aware Internet topology. We formally prove that our approach generates connected and legitimate topologies, which are compatible with the policy-based routing conventions and rules. 2012
  1. 8.       
Extrema Propagation: Fast Distributed Estimation of Sums and Network Sizes This paper introduces Extrema Propagation, a probabilistic technique for distributed estimation of the sum of positive real numbers. The technique relies on the exchange of duplicate insensitive messages and can be applied in flood and/or epidemic settings, where multipath routing occurs; it is tolerant of message loss; it is fast, as the number of message exchange steps can be made just slightly above the theoretical minimum; and it is fully distributed, with no single point of failure and the result produced at every node. 2012
  1. 9.       
Latency Equalization as a New Network Service Primitive We propose a Latency Equalization (LEQ) service, which equalizes the perceived latency for all clients. 2012
  1. 10.
Grouping-Enhanced Resilient Probabilistic En-Route Filtering of Injected False Data in WSNs This paper proposes a scheme, referred to as Grouping-enhanced Resilient Probabilistic En-route Filtering (GRPEF). In GRPEF, an efficient distributed algorithm is proposed to group nodes without incurring extra groups, and a multi axis division based approach for deriving location-aware keys is used to overcome the threshold problem and remove the dependence on the sink immobility and routing protocols. 2012
  1. 11.
On Achieving Group-Strategy proof Multicast A multicast scheme is stragegyproof if no receiver has incentive to lie about her true valuation. It is further group strategyproof if no group of colluding receivers has incentive to lie. We study multicast schemes that target group strategyproofness, in both directed and undirected networks. 2012
  1. 12.
Distributed -Optimal User Association and Cell Load Balancing in Wireless Networks In this paper, we develop a framework for user association in infrastructure-based wireless networks, specifically focused on flow-level cell load balancing under spatially in homogeneous traffic distributions. Our work encompasses several different user association policies: rate-optimal, throughput-optimal, delay-optimal, and load-equalizing, which we collectively denote ?-optimal user association. 2012
  1. 13.
Opportunistic Flow-Level Latency Estimation Using Consistent Net Flow In this paper, we propose Consistent Net Flow (CNF) architecture for measuring per-flow delay measurements within routers. CNF utilizes the existing Net Flow architecture that already reports the first and last timestamps per flow, and it proposes hash-based sampling to ensure that two adjacent routers record the same flows. 2012
  1. 14.
Leveraging a Compound Graph-Based DHT for Multi-Attribute Range Queries with Performance Analysis Resource discovery is critical to the usability and accessibility of grid computing systems. Distributed Hash Table (DHT) has been applied to grid systems as a distributed mechanism for providing scalable range-query and multi-attribute resource discovery. Multi-DHT-based approaches depend on multiple DHT networks with each network responsible for a single attribute. Single-DHT-based approaches keep the resource information of all attributes in a single node. Both classes of approaches lead to high overhead. In this paper, we propose a Low-Overhead Range-query Multi-attribute (LORM) DHT-based resource discovery approach. Unlike other DHT-based approaches, LORM relies on a single compound graph-based DHT network and distributes resource information among nodes in balance by taking advantage of the compound graph structure. Moreover, it has high capability to handle the large-scale and dynamic characteristics of resources in grids. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of LORM in comparison with other resource discovery approaches. LORM dramatically reduces maintenance and resource discovery overhead. In addition, it yields significant improvements in resource location efficiency. We also analyze the performance of the LORM approach rigorously by comparing it with other multi-DHT-based and single-DHT-based approaches with respect to their overhead and efficiency. The analytical results are consistent with experimental results, and prove the superiority of the LORM approach in theory 2012
  1. 15.
Exploiting Excess Capacity to Improve Robustness of WDM Mesh Networks  Excess capacity (EC) is the unused capacity in a network. We propose EC management techniques to improve network performance. Our techniques exploit the EC in two ways. First, a connection preprovisioning algorithm is used to reduce the connection setup time. Second, whenever possible, we use protection schemes that have higher availability and shorter protection switching time. Specifically, depending on the amount of EC available in the network, our proposed EC management techniques dynamically migrate connections between high-availability, high-backup-capacity protection schemes and low-availability, low-backup-capacity protection schemes. Thus, multiple protection schemes can coexist in the network. The four EC management techniques studied in this paper differ in two respects: when the connections are migrated from one protection scheme to another, and which connections are migrated. Specifically, Lazy techniques migrate connections only when necessary, whereas Proactive techniques migrate connections to free up capacity in advance. Partial Backup Reprovisioning (PBR) techniques try to migrate a minimal set of connections, whereas Global Backup Reprovisioning (GBR) techniques migrate all connections. We develop integer linear program (ILP) formulations and heuristic algorithms for the EC management techniques. We then present numerical examples to illustrate how the EC management techniques improve network performance by exploiting the EC in wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) mesh networks 2012
  1. 16.
Revisiting Dynamic Query Protocols in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks In unstructured peer-to-peer networks, the average response latency and traffic cost of a query are two main performance metrics. Controlled-flooding resource query algorithms are widely used in unstructured networks such as peer-to-peer networks. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm named Selective Dynamic Query (SDQ). Based on mathematical programming, SDQ calculates the optimal combination of an integer TTL value and a set of neighbors to control the scope of the next query. Our results demonstrate that SDQ provides finer grained control than other algorithms: its response latency is close to the well-known minimum one via Expanding Ring; in the mean time, its traffic cost is also close to the minimum. To our best knowledge, this is the first work capable of achieving a best trade-off between response latency and traffic cost. 2012
  1. 17.
Adaptive Opportunistic Routing for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks A distributed adaptive opportunistic routing scheme for multihop wireless ad hoc networks is proposed. The proposed scheme utilizes a reinforcement learning framework to opportunistically route the packets even in the absence of reliable knowledge about channel statistics and network model. This scheme is shown to be optimal with respect to an expected average per-packet reward criterion. The proposed routing scheme jointly addresses the issues of learning and routing in an opportunistic context, where the network structure is characterized by the transmission success probabilities. In particular, this learning framework leads to a stochastic routing scheme that optimally “explores” and “exploits” the opportunities in the network. 2012
  1. 18.
Design, Implementation, and Performance of A Load Balancer for SIP Server Clusters – projects 2012 This load balancer improves both throughput and response time versus a single node, while exposing a single interface to external clients. The algorithm achieves  Transaction Least-Work-Left (TLWL), achieves its performance by integrating several features: knowledge of the SIP protocol; dynamic estimates of back-end server load; distinguishing transactions from calls; recognizing variability in call length; and exploiting differences in processing costs for different SIP transactions. 2012
  1. 19.
Router Support for Fine-Grained Latency Measurements – projects 2012 An increasing number of datacenter network applications, including automated trading and high-performance computing, have stringent end-to-end latency requirements where even microsecond variations may be intolerable. The resulting fine-grained measurement demands cannot be met effectively by existing technologies, such as SNMP, NetFlow, or active probing. Instrumenting routers with a hash-based primitive has been proposed that called as Lossy Difference Aggregator (LDA) to measure latencies down to tens of microseconds even in the presence of packet loss. Because LDA does not modify or encapsulate the packet, it can be deployed incrementally without changes along the forwarding path. When compared to Poisson-spaced active probing with similar overheads, LDA mechanism delivers orders of magnitude smaller relative error. Although ubiquitous deployment is ultimately desired, it may be hard to achieve in the shorter term 2012
  1. 20.
A Framework for Routing Assisted Traffic Monitoring – projects 2012 Monitoring transit traffic at one or more points in a network is of interest to network operators for reasons of traffic accounting, debugging or troubleshooting, forensics, and traffic engineering. Previous research in the area has focused on deriving a placement of monitors across the network towards the end of maximizing the monitoring utility of the network operator for a given traffic routing. However, both traffic characteristics and measurement objectives can dynamically change over time, rendering a previously optimal placement of monitors suboptimal. It is not feasible to dynamically redeploy/reconfigure measurement infrastructure to cater to such evolving measurement requirements. This problem is addressed by strategically routing traffic sub-populations over fixed monitors. This approach is MeasuRouting. The main challenge for MeasuRouting is to work within the constraints of existing intra-domain traffic engineering operations that are geared for efficiently utilizing bandwidth resources, or meeting Quality of Service (QoS) constraints, or both. A fundamental feature of intra-domain routing, that makes MeasuRouting feasible, is that intra-domain routing is often specified for aggregate flows. MeasuRouting, can therefore, differentially route components of an aggregate flow while ensuring that the aggregate placement is compliant to original traffic engineering objectives. 2012
  1. 21.
Independent Directed Acyclic Graphs for Resilient Multipath Routing In order to achieve resilient multipath routing we introduce the concept of Independent Directed Acyclic Graphs (IDAGs) in this study. Link-independent (Node-independent) DAGs satisfy the property that any path from a source to the root on one DAG is link-disjoint (node-disjoint) with any path from the source to the root on the other DAG. Given a network, we develop polynomial time algorithms to compute link-independent and node-independent DAGs. The algorithm developed in this paper: (1) provides multipath routing; (2) utilizes all possible edges; (3) guarantees recovery from single link failure; and (4) achieves all these with at most one bit per packet as overhead when routing is based on destination address and incoming edge. We show the effectiveness of the proposed IDAGs approach by comparing key performance indices to that of the independent trees and multiple pairs of independent trees techniques through extensive simulations 2012
  1. 22.
A Greedy Link Scheduler for Wireless Networks With Gaussian Multiple-Access and Broadcast Channels Information-theoretic broadcast channels (BCs) and multiple-access channels (MACs) enable a single node to transmit data simultaneously to multiple nodes, and multiple nodes to transmit data simultaneously to a single node, respectively. In this paper, we address the problem of link scheduling in multihop wireless networks containing nodes with BC and MAC capabilities. We first propose an interference model that extends protocol interference models, originally designed for point-to-point channels, to include the possibility of BCs and MACs. Due to the high complexity of optimal link schedulers, we introduce the Multiuser Greedy Maximum Weight algorithm for link scheduling in multihop wireless networks containing BCs and MACs. Given a network graph, we develop new local pooling conditions and show that the performance of our algorithm can be fully characterized using the associated parameter, the multiuser local pooling factor. We provide examples of some network graphs, on which we apply local pooling conditions and derive the multiuser local pooling factor. We prove optimality of our algorithm in tree networks and show that the exploitation of BCs and MACs improve the throughput performance considerably in multihop wireless networks. 2012
  1. 23.
A Quantization Theoretic Perspective on Simulcast and Layered Multicast Optimization We consider rate optimization in multicast systems that use several multicast trees on a communication network. The network is shared between different applications. For that reason, we model the available bandwidth for multicast as stochastic. For specific network topologies, we show that the multicast rate optimization problem is equivalent to the optimization of scalar quantization. We use results from rate-distortion theory to provide a bound on the achievable performance for the multicast rate optimization problem. A large number of receivers makes the possibility of adaptation to changing network conditions desirable in a practical system. To this end, we derive an analytical solution to the problem that is asymptotically optimal in the number of multicast trees. We derive local optimality conditions, which we use to describe a general class of iterative algorithms that give locally optimal solutions to the problem. Simulation results are provided for the multicast of an i.i.d. Gaussian process, an i.i.d. Laplacian process, and a video source. 2012
  1. 24.
Bit Weaving A Non-Prefix Approach to Compressing Packet Classifiers in TCAMs Ternary Content Addressable Memories (TCAMs) have become the de facto standard in industry for fast packet classification. Unfortunately, TCAMs have limitations of small capacity, high power consumption, high heat generation, and high cost. The well-known range expansion problem exacerbates these limitations as each classifier rule typically has to be converted to multiple TCAM rules. One method for coping with these limitations is to use compression schemes to reduce the number of TCAM rules required to represent a classifier. Unfortunately, all existing compression schemes only produce prefix classifiers. Thus, they all miss the compression opportunities created by non-prefix ternary classifiers. 2012
  1. 25.
Cooperative Profit Sharing in Coalition-Based Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks We consider a network in which several service providers offer wireless access service to their respective subscribed customers through potentially multi-hop routes. If providers cooperate, i.e., pool their resources, such as spectrum and base stations, and agree to serve each others’ customers, their aggregate payoffs, and individual shares, can potentially substantially increase through efficient utilization of resources and statistical multiplexing. The potential of such cooperation can however be realized only if each provider intelligently determines who it would cooperate with, when it would cooperate, and how it would share its resources during such cooperation. Also, when the providers share their aggregate revenues, developing a rational basis for such sharing is imperative for the stability of the coalitions. We model such cooperation using transferable payoff coalitional game theory. We first consider the scenario that locations of the base stations and the channels that each provider can use have already been decided apriori. We show that the optimum cooperation strategy, which involves the allocations of the channels and the base stations to mobile customers, can be obtained as solutions of convex optimizations. We next show that the grand coalition is stable in this case, i.e. if all providers cooperate, there is always an operating point that maximizes the providers’ aggregate payoff, while offering each such a share that removes any incentive to split from the coalition. Next, we show that when the providers can choose the locations of their base stations and decide which channels to acquire, the above results hold in important special cases. Finally, we examine cooperation when providers do not share their payoffs, but still share their resources so as to enhance individual payoffs. We show that the grand coalition continues to be stable. 2012
  1. 26.
CSMACN Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Notification A wireless transmitter learns of a packet loss and infers collision only after completing the entire transmission. If the transmitter could detect the collision early [such as with carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) in wired networks], it could immediately abort its transmission, freeing the channel for useful communication. There are two main hurdles to realize CSMA/CD in wireless networks. First, a wireless transmitter cannot simultaneously transmit and listen for a collision. Second, any channel activity around the transmitter may not be an indicator of collision at the receiver. This paper attempts to approximate CSMA/CD in wireless networks with a novel scheme called CSMA/CN (collision notification). Under CSMA/CN, the receiver uses PHY-layer information to detect a collision and immediately notifies the transmitter. The collision notification consists of a unique signature, sent on the same channel as the data. The transmitter employs a listener antenna and performs signature correlation to discern this notification. Once discerned, the transmitter immediately aborts the transmission. We show that the notification signature can be reliably detected at the listener antenna, even in the presence of a strong self-interference from the transmit antenna. A prototype testbed of 10 USRP/GNU Radios demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of CSMA/CN. 2012
  1. 27.
Dynamic Power Allocation Under Arbitrary Varying Channels—An Online Approach A major problem in wireless networks is coping with limited resources, such as bandwidth and energy. These issues become a major algorithmic challenge in view of the dynamic nature of the wireless domain. We consider in this paper the single-transmitter power assignment problem under time-varying channels, with the objective of maximizing the data throughput. It is assumed that the transmitter has a limited power budget, to be sequentially divided during the lifetime of the battery. We deviate from the classic work in this area, which leads to explicit “water-filling” solutions, by considering a realistic scenario where the channel state quality changes arbitrarily from one transmission to the other. The problem is accordingly tackled within the framework of competitive analysis, which allows for worst case performance guarantees in setups with arbitrarily varying channel conditions. We address both a “discrete” case, where the transmitter can transmit only at a fixed power level, and a “continuous” case, where the transmitter can choose any power level out of a bounded interval. For both cases, we propose online power-allocation algorithms with proven worst-case performance bounds. In addition, we establish lower bounds on the worst-case performance of any online algorithm, and show that our proposed algorithms are optimal. 2012
  1. 28.
Economic Issues in Shared Infrastructures In designing and managing a shared infrastructure, one must take account of the fact that its participants will make self-interested and strategic decisions about the resources that they are willing to contribute to it and/or the share of its cost that they are willing to bear. Taking proper account of the incentive issues that thereby arise, we design mechanisms that, by eliciting appropriate information from the participants, can obtain for them maximal social welfare, subject to charging payments that are sufficient to cover costs. We show that there are incentivizing roles to be played both by the payments that we ask from the participants and the specification of how resources are to be shared. New in this paper is our formulation of models for designing optimal management policies, our analysis that demonstrates the inadequacy of simple sharing policies, and our proposals for some better ones. We learn that simple policies may be far from optimal and that efficient policy design is not trivial. However, we find that optimal policies have simple forms in the limit as the number of participants becomes large. 2012
  1. 29.
On New Approaches of Assessing Network Vulnerability Hardness and Approximation Society relies heavily on its networked physical infrastructure and information systems. Accurately assessing the vulnerability of these systems against disruptive events is vital for planning and risk management. Existing approaches to vulnerability assessments of large-scale systems mainly focus on investigating inhomogeneous properties of the underlying graph elements. These measures and the associated heuristic solutions are limited in evaluating the vulnerability of large-scale network topologies. Furthermore, these approaches often fail to provide performance guarantees of the proposed solutions. In this paper, we propose a vulnerability measure, pairwise connectivity, and use it to formulate network vulnerability assessment as a graph-theoretical optimization problem, referred to as -disruptor. The objective is to identify the minimum set of critical network elements, namely nodes and edges, whose removal results in a specific degradation of the network global pairwise connectivity. We prove the NP-completeness and inapproximability of this problem and propose an pseudo-approximation algorithm to computing the set of critical nodes and an pseudo-approximation algorithm for computing the set of critical edges. The results of an extensive simulation-based experiment show the feasibility of our proposed vulnerability assessment framework and the efficiency of the proposed approximation algorithms in comparison to other approaches. 2012
  1. 30.
Quantifying Video-QoE Degradations of Internet Links With the proliferation of multimedia content on the Internet, there is an increasing demand for video streams with high perceptual quality. The capability of present-day Internet links in delivering high-perceptual-quality streaming services, however, is not completely understood. Link-level degradations caused by intradomain routing policies and inter-ISP peering policies are hard to obtain, as Internet service providers often consider such information proprietary. Understanding link-level degradations will enable us in designing future protocols, policies, and architectures to meet the rising multimedia demands. This paper presents a trace-driven study to understand quality-of-experience (QoE) capabilities of present-day Internet links using 51 diverse ISPs with a major presence in the US, Europe, and Asia-Pacific. We study their links from 38 vantage points in the Internet using both passive tracing and active probing for six days. We provide the first measurements of link-level degradations and case studies of intra-ISP and inter-ISP peering links from a multimedia standpoint. Our study offers surprising insights into intradomain traffic engineering, peering link loading, BGP, and the inefficiencies of using autonomous system (AS)-path lengths as a routing metric. Though our results indicate that Internet routing policies are not optimized for delivering high-perceptual-quality streaming services, we argue that alternative strategies such as overlay networks can help meet QoE demands over the Internet. Streaming services apart, our Internet measurement results can be used as an input to a variety of research problems. 2012
  1. 31.
Order Matters Transmission Reordering in Wireless Networks Modern wireless interfaces support a physical-layer capability called Message in Message (MIM). Briefly, MIM allows a receiver to disengage from an ongoing reception and engage onto a stronger incoming signal. Links that otherwise conflict with each other can be made concurrent with MIM. However, the concurrency is not immediate and can be achieved only if conflicting links begin transmission in a specific order. The importance of link order is new in wireless research, motivating MIM-aware revisions to link-scheduling protocols. This paper identifies the opportunity in MIM-aware reordering, characterizes the optimal improvement in throughput, and designs a link-layer protocol for enterprise wireless LANs to achieve it. Testbed and simulation results confirm the performance gains of the proposed system. 2012
  1. 32.
Static Routing and Wavelength Assignment for Multicast Advance Reservation in All-Optical Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks In this paper, we investigate the static multicast advance reservation (MCAR) problem for all-optical wavelength-routed WDM networks. Under the advanced reservation traffic model, connection requests specify their start time to be some time in the future and also specify their holding times. We investigate the static MCAR problem where the set of advance reservation requests is known ahead of time. We prove the MCAR problem is NP-complete, formulate the problem mathematically as an integer linear program (ILP), and develop three efficient heuristics, seqRWA, ISH, and SA, to solve the problem for practical size networks. We also introduce a theoretical lower bound on the number of wavelengths required. To evaluate our heuristics, we first compare their performances to the ILP for small networks, and then simulate them over real-world, large-scale networks. We find the SA heuristic provides close to optimal results compared to the ILP for our smaller networks, and up to a 33% improvement over seqRWA and up to a 22% improvement over ISH on realistic networks. SA provides, on average, solutions 1.5-1.8 times the cost given by our conservative lower bound on large networks. 2012
  1. 33.
System-Level Optimization in Wireless Networks Managing Interference and Uncertainty via Robust Optimization We consider a robust-optimization-driven system-level approach to interference management in a cellular broadband system operating in an interference-limited and highly dynamic regime. Here, base stations in neighboring cells (partially) coordinate their transmission schedules in an attempt to avoid simultaneous max-power transmission to their mutual cell edge. Limits on communication overhead and use of the backhaul require base station coordination to occur at a slower timescale than the customer arrival process. The central challenge is to properly structure coordination decisions at the slow timescale, as these subsequently restrict the actions of each base station until the next coordination period. Moreover, because coordination occurs at the slower timescale, the statistics of the arriving customers, e.g., the load, are typically only approximately known-thus, this coordination must be done with only approximate knowledge of statistics. We show that performance of existing approaches that assume exact knowledge of these statistics can degrade rapidly as the uncertainty in the arrival process increases. We show that a two-stage robust optimization framework is a natural way to model two-timescale decision problems. We provide tractable formulations for the base-station coordination problem and show that our formulation is robust to fluctuations (uncertainties) in the arriving load. This tolerance to load fluctuation also serves to reduce the need for frequent reoptimization across base stations, thus helping minimize the communication overhead required for system-level interference reduction. Our robust optimization formulations are flexible, allowing us to control the conservatism of the solution. Our simulations show that we can build in robustness without significant degradation of nominal performance. 2012
  1. 34.
The Case for Feed-Forward Clock Synchronization Variable latencies due to communication delays or system noise is the central challenge faced by time-keeping algorithms when synchronizing over the network. Using extensive experiments, we explore the robustness of synchronization in the face of both normal and extreme latency variability and compare the feedback approaches of ntpd and ptpd (a software implementation of IEEE-1588) to the feed-forward approach of the RADclock and advocate for the benefits of a feed-forward approach. Noting the current lack of kernel support, we present extensions to existing mechanisms in the Linux and FreeBSD kernels giving full access to all available raw counters, and then evaluate the TSC, HPET, and ACPI counters’ suitability as hardware timing sources. We demonstrate how the RADclock achieves the same microsecond accuracy with each counter. 2012

 

TECHNOLOGY                   : JAVA DOMAIN                               : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORK SECURITY

 

 

S.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
Design and Implementation of TARF: A Trust-Aware Routing Framework for WSNs We have designed and implemented TARF, a robust trust-aware routing framework for dynamic wireless sensor networks (WSN). Without tight time synchronization or known Geographic information, TARF provides trustworthy and energy-efficient route. Most importantly, TARF proves effective against those harmful attacks developed out of identity deception; the resilience of TARF is verified through extensive evaluation with both simulation and empirical experiments on large-scale WSNs under various scenarios including mobile and RF-shielding network conditions. 2012
Risk-Aware Mitigation for MANET Routing Attacks In this paper, we propose a risk-aware response mechanism to systematically Cope with the identified routing attacks. Our risk-aware approach is based on an extended Dempster-Shafer mathematical theory of Evidence introducing a notion of importance factors. 2012
Survivability Experiment and Attack Characterization for RFID In this paper, we study survivability issues for RFID. We first present an RFID survivability experiment to define a foundation to measure the degree of survivability of an RFID system under varying attacks. Then we model a series of malicious scenarios using stochastic process algebras and study the different effects of those attacks on the ability of the RFID system to provide critical services even when parts of the system have been damaged. 2012
Detecting and Resolving Firewall Policy Anomalies In this paper, we represent an innovative policy anomaly management framework for firewalls, adopting a rule-based segmentation technique to identify policy anomalies and derive effective anomaly resolutions. In particular, we articulate a grid-based representation technique, providing an intuitive cognitive sense about policy anomaly. 2012
Automatic Reconfiguration for Large-Scale Reliable Storage Systems In this paper, we present a complete solution for dynamically changing system membership in a large-scale Byzantine-fault-tolerant system. We present a service that tracks system membership and periodically notifies other system nodes of changes. 2012
Detecting Anomalous Insiders in Collaborative Information Systems In this paper, we introduce the community anomaly detection system (CADS), an unsupervised learning framework to detect insider threats based on the access logs of collaborative environments. The framework is based on the observation that typical CIS users tend to form community structures based on the subjects accessed 2012
An Extended Visual Cryptography Algorithm for General Access Structures Conventional visual secret sharing schemes generate noise-like random pixels on shares to hide secret images. It suffers a management problem. In this paper, we propose a general approach to solve the above- mentioned problems; the approach can be used for binary secret images in non computer-aided decryption environments. 2012
Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in Multiparty Applications in the Presence of Clock Drift In this paper, we extend port-hopping to support multiparty applications, by proposing the BIGWHEEL algorithm, for each application server to communicate with multiple clients in a port-hopping manner without the need for group synchronization. Furthermore, we present an adaptive algorithm, HOPERAA, for enabling hopping in the presence of bounded asynchrony, namely, when the communicating parties have clocks with clock drifts. 2012
On the Security and Efficiency of Content Distribution via Network Coding Content distribution via network coding has received a lot of attention lately. However, direct application of network coding may be insecure. In particular, attackers can inject “bogus” data to corrupt the content distribution process so as to hinder the information dispersal or even deplete the network resource. Therefore, content verification is an important and practical issue when network coding is employed. 2012
Packet-Hiding Methods for Preventing Selective Jamming Attacks In this paper, we address the problem of selective jamming attacks in wireless networks. In these attacks, the adversary is active only for a short period of time, selectively targeting messages of high importance. 2012
Stochastic Model of Multi virus Dynamics 2012
Peering Equilibrium Multipath Routing: A Game Theory Framework for Internet Peering Settlements Our scheme relies on a game theory modeling, with a non-cooperative potential game considering both routing and congestions costs. We compare different PEMP policies to BGP Multipath schemes by emulating a realistic peering scenario. 2012
Modeling and Detection of Camouflaging Worm Our scheme uses the Power Spectral Density (PSD) distribution of the scan traffic volume and its corresponding Spectral Flatness Measure (SFM) to distinguish the C-Worm traffic from background traffic. The performance data clearly demonstrates that our scheme can effectively detect the C-Worm propagation.two heuristic algorithms for the two sub problems. 2012
Analysis of a Botnet Takeover We present the design of an advanced hybrid peer-to-peer botnet. Compared with current botnets, the proposed botnet is harder to be shut down, monitored, and hijacked. It provides individualized encryption and control traffic dispersion. 2012
Efficient Network Modification to Improve QoS Stability at Failures As real-time traffic such as video or voice increases on the Internet, ISPs are required to provide stable quality as well as connectivity at failures. For ISPs, how to effectively improve the stability of these qualities at failures with the minimum investment cost is an important issue, and they need to effectively select a limited number of locations to add link facilities. 2012
Detecting Spam Zombies by Monitoring Outgoing Messages Compromised machines are one of the key security threats on the Internet; they are often used to launch various security attacks such as spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. Given that spamming provides a key economic incentive for attackers to recruit the large number of compromised machines, we focus on the detection of the compromised machines in a network that are involved in the spamming activities, commonly known as spam zombies. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates. In addition, we also evaluate the performance of the developed SPOT system using a two-month e-mail trace collected in a large US campus network. Our evaluation studies show that SPOT is an effective and efficient system in automatically detecting compromised machines in a network. For example, among the 440 internal IP addresses observed in the e-mail trace, SPOT identifies 132 of them as being associated with compromised machines. Out of the 132 IP addresses identified by SPOT, 126 can be either independently confirmed (110) or highly likely (16) to be compromised. Moreover, only seven internal IP addresses associated with compromised machines in the trace are missed by SPOT. In addition, we also compare the performance of SPOT with two other spam zombie detection algorithms based on the number and percentage of spam messages originated or forwarded by internal machines, respectively, and show that SPOT outperforms these two detection algorithms. 2012
A Hybrid Approach to Private Record Matching   Network Security 2012 Java Real-world entities are not always represented by the same set of features in different data sets. Therefore, matching records of the same real-world entity distributed across these data sets is a challenging task. If the data sets contain private information, the problem becomes even more difficult. Existing solutions to this problem generally follow two approaches: sanitization techniques and cryptographic techniques. We propose a hybrid technique that combines these two approaches and enables users to trade off between privacy, accuracy, and cost. Our main contribution is the use of a blocking phase that operates over sanitized data to filter out in a privacy-preserving manner pairs of records that do not satisfy the matching condition. We also provide a formal definition of privacy and prove that the participants of our protocols learn nothing other than their share of the result and what can be inferred from their share of the result, their input and sanitized views of the input data sets (which are considered public information). Our method incurs considerably lower costs than cryptographic techniques and yields significantly more accurate matching results compared to sanitization techniques, even when privacy requirements are high. 2012
ES-MPICH2: A Message Passing Interface with Enhanced Security  Network Security 2012 Java An increasing number of commodity clusters are connected to each other by public networks, which have become a potential threat to security sensitive parallel applications running on the clusters. To address this security issue, we developed a Message Passing Interface (MPI) implementation to preserve confidentiality of messages communicated among nodes of clusters in an unsecured network. We focus on MPI rather than other protocols, because MPI is one of the most popular communication protocols for parallel computing on clusters. Our MPI implementation—called ES-MPICH2—was built based on MPICH2 developed by the Argonne National Laboratory. Like MPICH2, ES-MPICH2 aims at supporting a large variety of computation and communication platforms like commodity clusters and high-speed networks. We integrated encryption and decryption algorithms into the MPICH2 library with the standard MPI interface and; thus, data confidentiality of MPI applications can be readily preserved without a need to change the source codes of the MPI applications. MPI-application programmers can fully configure any confidentiality services in MPICHI2, because a secured configuration file in ES-MPICH2 offers the programmers flexibility in choosing any cryptographic schemes and keys seamlessly incorporated in ES-MPICH2. We used the Sandia Micro Benchmark and Intel MPI Benchmark suites to evaluate and compare the performance of ES-MPICH2 with the original MPICH2 version. Our experiments show that overhead incurred by the confidentiality services in ES-MPICH2 is marginal for small messages. The security overhead in ES-MPICH2 becomes more pronounced with larger messages. Our results also show that security overhead can be significantly reduced in ES-MPICH2 by high-performance clusters. 2012 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 19.
Ensuring Distributed Accountability for Data Sharing in the Cloud Cloud computing enables highly scalable services to be easily consumed over the Internet on an as-needed basis. A major feature of the cloud services is that users’ data are usually processed remotely in unknown machines that users do not own or operate. While enjoying the convenience brought by this new emerging technology, users’ fears of losing control of their own data (particularly, financial and health data) can become a significant barrier to the wide adoption of cloud services. To address this problem, here, we propose a novel highly decentralized information accountability framework to keep track of the actual usage of the users’ data in the cloud. In particular, we propose an object-centered approach that enables enclosing our logging mechanism together with users’ data and policies. We leverage the JAR programmable capabilities to both create a dynamic and traveling object, and to ensure that any access to users’ data will trigger authentication and automated logging local to the JARs. To strengthen user’s control, we also provide distributed auditing mechanisms. We provide extensive experimental studies that demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approaches. 2012
  1. 20.
BECAN: A Bandwidth-Efficient Cooperative Authentication Scheme for Filtering Injected False Data in Wireless Sensor Networks – projects 2012 Injecting false data attack is a well known serious threat to wireless sensor network, for which an adversary reports bogus information to sink causing error decision at upper level and energy waste in en-route nodes. In this paper, we propose a novel bandwidth-efficient cooperative authentication (BECAN) scheme for filtering injected false data. Based on the random graph characteristics of sensor node deployment and the cooperative bit-compressed authentication technique, the proposed BECAN scheme can save energy by early detecting and filtering the majority of injected false data with minor extra overheads at the en-route nodes. In addition, only a very small fraction of injected false data needs to be checked by the sink, which thus largely reduces the burden of the sink. Both theoretical and simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of high filtering probability and energy saving. 2012
 21 A Flexible Approach to Improving System Reliability with Virtual Lockstep There is an increasing need for fault tolerance capabilities in logic devices brought about by the scaling of transistors to ever smaller geometries. This paper presents a hypervisor-based replication approach that can be applied to commodity hardware to allow for virtually lockstepped execution. It offers many of the benefits of hardware-based lockstep while being cheaper and easier to implement and more flexible in the configurations supported. A novel form of processor state fingerprinting is also presented, which can significantly reduce the fault detection latency. This further improves reliability by triggering rollback recovery before errors are recorded to a checkpoint. The mechanisms are validated using a full prototype and the benchmarks considered indicate an average performance overhead of approximately 14 percent with the possibility for significant optimization. Finally, a unique method of using virtual lockstep for fault injection testing is presented and used to show that significant detection latency reduction is achievable by comparing only a small amount of data across replicas 2012
 22 A Learning-Based Approach to Reactive Security Despite the conventional wisdom that proactive security is superior to reactive security, we show that reactive security can be competitive with proactive security as long as the reactive defender learns from past attacks instead of myopically overreacting to the last attack. Our game-theoretic model follows common practice in the security literature by making worst case assumptions about the attacker: we grant the attacker complete knowledge of the defender’s strategy and do not require the attacker to act rationally. In this model, we bound the competitive ratio between a reactive defense algorithm (which is inspired by online learning theory) and the best fixed proactive defense. Additionally, we show that, unlike proactive defenses, this reactive strategy is robust to a lack of information about the attacker’s incentives and knowledge 2012
Automated Security Test Generation with Formal Threat Models Despite the conventional wisdom that proactive security is superior to reactive security, we show that reactive security can be competitive with proactive security as long as the reactive defender learns from past attacks instead of myopically overreacting to the last attack. Our game-theoretic model follows common practice in the security literature by making worst case assumptions about the attacker: we grant the attacker complete knowledge of the defender’s strategy and do not require the attacker to act rationally. In this model, we bound the competitive ratio between a reactive defense algorithm (which is inspired by online learning theory) and the best fixed proactive defense. Additionally, we show that, unlike proactive defenses, this reactive strategy is robust to a lack of information about the attacker’s incentives and knowledge. 2012
 23 Automatic Reconfiguration for Large-Scale Reliable Storage Systems Byzantine-fault-tolerant replication enhances the availability and reliability of Internet services that store critical state and preserve it despite attacks or software errors. However, existing Byzantine-fault-tolerant storage systems either assume a static set of replicas, or have limitations in how they handle reconfigurations (e.g., in terms of the scalability of the solutions or the consistency levels they provide). This can be problematic in long-lived, large-scale systems where system membership is likely to change during the system lifetime. In this paper, we present a complete solution for dynamically changing system membership in a large-scale Byzantine-fault-tolerant system. We present a service that tracks system membership and periodically notifies other system nodes of membership changes. The membership service runs mostly automatically, to avoid human configuration errors; is itself Byzantine-fault-tolerant and reconfigurable; and provides applications with a sequence of consistent views of the system membership. We demonstrate the utility of this membership service by using it in a novel distributed hash table called dBQS that provides atomic semantics even across changes in replica sets. dBQS is interesting in its own right because its storage algorithms extend existing Byzantine quorum protocols to handle changes in the replica set, and because it differs from previous DHTs by providing Byzantine fault tolerance and offering strong semantics. We implemented the membership service and dBQS. Our results show that the approach works well, in practice: the membership service is able to manage a large system and the cost to change the system membership is low. 2012
 24 JS-Reduce Defending Your Data from Sequential Background Knowledge Attacks Web queries, credit card transactions, and medical records are examples of transaction data flowing in corporate data stores, and often revealing associations between individuals and sensitive information. The serial release of these data to partner institutions or data analysis centers in a nonaggregated form is a common situation. In this paper, we show that correlations among sensitive values associated to the same individuals in different releases can be easily used to violate users’ privacy by adversaries observing multiple data releases, even if state-of-the-art privacy protection techniques are applied. We show how the above sequential background knowledge can be actually obtained by an adversary, and used to identify with high confidence the sensitive values of an individual. Our proposed defense algorithm is based on Jensen-Shannon divergence; experiments show its superiority with respect to other applicable solutions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that systematically investigates the role of sequential background knowledge in serial release of transaction data. 2012
 25 Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in Multiparty Applications in the Presence of Clock Drifts Network-based applications commonly open some known communication port(s), making themselves easy targets for (distributed) Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Earlier solutions for this problem are based on port-hopping between pairs of processes which are synchronous or exchange acknowledgments. However, acknowledgments, if lost, can cause a port to be open for longer time and thus be vulnerable, while time servers can become targets to DoS attack themselves. Here, we extend port-hopping to support multiparty applications, by proposing the BIGWHEEL algorithm, for each application server to communicate with multiple clients in a port-hopping manner without the need for group synchronization. Furthermore, we present an adaptive algorithm, HOPERAA, for enabling hopping in the presence of bounded asynchrony, namely, when the communicating parties have clocks with clock drifts. The solutions are simple, based on each client interacting with the server independently of the other clients, without the need of acknowledgments or time server(s). Further, they do not rely on the application having a fixed port open in the beginning, neither do they require the clients to get a “first-contact” port from a third party. We show analytically the properties of the algorithms and also study experimentally their success rates, confirm the relation with the analytical bounds. 2012
 26 On the Security and Efficiency of Content Distribution via Network Coding Content distribution via network coding has received a lot of attention lately. However, direct application of network coding may be insecure. In particular, attackers can inject “bogus” data to corrupt the content distribution process so as to hinder the information dispersal or even deplete the network resource. Therefore, content verification is an important and practical issue when network coding is employed. When random linear network coding is used, it is infeasible for the source of the content to sign all the data, and hence, the traditional “hash-and-sign” methods are no longer applicable. Recently, a new on-the-fly verification technique has been proposed by Krohn et al. (IEEE S&P ’04), which employs a classical homomorphic hash function. However, this technique is difficult to be applied to network coding because of high computational and communication overhead. We explore this issue further by carefully analyzing different types of overhead, and propose methods to help reducing both the computational and communication cost, and provide provable security at the same time. 2012
 27 Security of Bertino-Shang-Wagstaff Time-Bound Hierarchical Key Management Scheme for Secure Broadcasting Recently, Bertino, Shang and Wagstaff proposed a time-bound hierarchical key management scheme for secure broadcasting. Their scheme is built on elliptic curve cryptography and implemented with tamper-resistant devices. In this paper, we present two collusion attacks on Bertino-Shang-Wagstaff scheme. The first attack does not need to compromise any decryption device, while the second attack requires to compromise single decryption device only. Both attacks are feasible and effective. 2012
 28 Survivability Experiment and Attack Characterization for RFID Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been developed as an important technique for many high security and high integrity settings. In this paper, we study survivability issues for RFID. We first present an RFID survivability experiment to define a foundation to measure the degree of survivability of an RFID system under varying attacks. Then we model a series of malicious scenarios using stochastic process algebras and study the different effects of those attacks on the ability of the RFID system to provide critical services even when parts of the system have been damaged. Our simulation model relates its statistic to the attack strategies and security recovery. The model helps system designers and security specialists to identify the most devastating attacks given the attacker’s capacities and the system’s recovery abilities. The goal is to improve the system survivability given possible attacks. Our model is the first of its kind to formally represent and simulate attacks on RFID systems and to quantitatively measure the degree of survivability of an RFID system under those attacks. 2012
 29 Persuasive Cued Click-Points Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Knowledge- Based Authentication Mechanism This paper presents an integrated evaluation of the Persuasive Cued Click-Points graphical password scheme, including usability and security evaluations, and implementation considerations. An important usability goal for knowledge-based authentication systems is to support users in selecting passwords of higher security, in the sense of being from an expanded effective security space. We use persuasion to influence user choice in click-based graphical passwords, encouraging users to select more random, and hence more difficult to guess, click-points. 2012
 30 Resilient Authenticated Execution of Critical Applications in Untrusted Environments Modern computer systems are built on a foundation of software components from a variety of vendors. While critical applications may undergo extensive testing and evaluation procedures, the heterogeneity of software sources threatens the integrity of the execution environment for these trusted programs. For instance, if an attacker can combine an application exploit with a privilege escalation vulnerability, the operating system (OS) can become corrupted. Alternatively, a malicious or faulty device driver running with kernel privileges could threaten the application. While the importance of ensuring application integrity has been studied in prior work, proposed solutions immediately terminate the application once corruption is detected. Although, this approach is sufficient for some cases, it is undesirable for many critical applications. In order to overcome this shortcoming, we have explored techniques for leveraging a trusted virtual machine monitor (VMM) to observe the application and potentially repair damage that occurs. In this paper, we describe our system design, which leverages efficient coding and authentication schemes, and we present the details of our prototype implementation to quantify the overhead of our approach. Our work shows that it is feasible to build a resilient execution environment, even in the presence of a corrupted OS kernel, with a reasonable amount of storage and performance overhead. 2012

 

TECHNOLOGY                               : JAVA DOMAIN                                           : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DATA MINING

 

S.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
 1 A Survival Modeling Approach to Biomedical Search Result Diversification Using Wikipedia In this paper, we propose a survival modeling approach to promoting ranking diversity for biomedical information retrieval. The proposed approach concerns with finding relevant documents that can deliver more different aspects of a query. First, two probabilistic models derived from the survival analysis theory are proposed for measuring aspect novelty. 2012
 2 A Fuzzy Approach for Multitype Relational Data Clustering In this paper, we propose a new fuzzy clustering approach for multitype relational data (FC-MR). In FC-MR, different types of objects are clustered simultaneously. An object is assigned a large membership with respect to a cluster if its related objects in this cluster have high rankings. 2012
 3 Anonimos: An LP-Based Approach for Anonymizing Weighted Social Network Graphs We present Anonimos, a Linear Programming-based technique for anonymization of edge weights that preserves linear properties of graphs. Such properties form the foundation of many important graph-theoretic algorithms such as shortest paths problem, k-nearest neighbors, minimum cost spanning Tree and maximizing information spread. 2012
 4 A Methodology for Direct and Indirect Discrimination Prevention in Data Mining In this paper, we tackle discrimination prevention in data mining and propose new techniques applicable for direct or indirect Discrimination prevention individually or both at the same time. We discuss how to clean training datasets and outsourced datasets in such a way that direct and/or indirect discriminatory decision rules are converted to legitimate (non-discriminatory) Classification rules. 2012
 5 Mining Web Graphs for Recommendations In this paper, aiming at providing a general framework on mining Web graphs for recommendations, (1) we first propose a novel diffusion method which propagates similarities between different nodes and generates recommendations; (2) then we illustrate how to generalize different recommendation problems into our graph diffusion framework. 2012
 6 Prediction of User’s Web-Browsing Behavior: Application of Markov Model Predicting user’s behavior while serving the Internet can be applied effectively in various critical applications. Such application has traditional tradeoffs between modeling complexity and prediction accuracy. In this paper, we analyze and study Markov model and all- Kth Markov model in Web prediction. We propose a new modified Markov model to alleviate the issue of scalability in the number of paths. 2012
 7 Prototype Selection for Nearest Neighbor Classification: Taxonomy and Empirical Study This paper provides a survey of the prototype selection methods proposed in the literature from a theoretical and empirical point of view. Considering a theoretical point of view, we propose a taxonomy based on the main characteristics presented in prototype selection and we analyze their advantages and drawbacks, the nearest neighbor classifier suffers from several drawbacks such as high storage requirements, low efficiency in classification response, and low noise Tolerance. 2012
 8 Query Planning for Continuous Aggregation Queries over a Network of Data Aggregators We present a low-cost, scalable technique to answer continuous aggregation queries using a network of aggregators of dynamic data items. In such a network of data aggregators, each data aggregator serves a set of data items at specific coherencies. 2012
 9 Revealing Density-Based Clustering Structure from the Core-Connected Tree of a Network In this paper, we introduce a novel density-based network clustering method, called gSkeletonClu (graph-skeleton based clustering). By projecting an undirected network to its core-connected maximal spanning tree, the clustering problem can be converted to detect core connectivity components on the tree. 2012
 10 Scalable Learning of Collective Behavior This study of collective behavior is to understand how individuals behave in a social networking environment. Oceans of data generated by social media like Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, and YouTube present opportunities and challenges to study collective behavior on a large scale. In this work, we aim to learn to predict collective behavior in social media 2012
 11 Weakly Supervised Joint Sentiment-Topic Detection from Text This paper proposes a novel probabilistic modeling framework called joint sentiment-topic (JST) model based on latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), which detects sentiment and topic simultaneously from text. A reparameterized version of the JST model called Reverse-JST, obtained by reversing the sequence of sentiment and topic generation in the modeling process, is also studied. 2012
 12 A Framework for Personal Mobile Commerce Pattern Mining and Prediction Due to a wide range of potential applications, research on mobile commerce has received a lot of interests from both of the industry and academia. Among them, one of the active topic areas is the mining and prediction of users’ mobile commerce behaviors such as their movements and purchase transactions. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, called Mobile Commerce Explorer (MCE), for mining and prediction of mobile users’ movements and purchase transactions under the context of mobile commerce. The MCE framework consists of three major components: 1) Similarity Inference Model (SIM) for measuring the similarities among stores and items, which are two basic mobile commerce entities considered in this paper; 2) Personal Mobile Commerce Pattern Mine (PMCP-Mine) algorithm for efficient discovery of mobile users’ Personal Mobile Commerce Patterns (PMCPs); and 3) Mobile Commerce Behavior Predictor (MCBP) for prediction of possible mobile user behaviors. To our best knowledge, this is the first work that facilitates mining and prediction of mobile users’ commerce behaviors in order to recommend stores and items previously unknown to a user. We perform an extensive experimental evaluation by simulation and show that our proposals produce excellent results. 2012
 13 Efficient Extended Boolean Retrieval Extended Boolean retrieval (EBR) models were proposed nearly three decades ago, but have had little practical impact, despite their significant advantages compared to either ranked keyword or pure Boolean retrieval. In particular,EBR models produce meaningful rankings; their query model allows the representation of complex concepts in an and-or format; and they are scrutable, in that the score assigned to a document depends solely on the content of that document, unaffected by any collection statistics or other external factors. These characteristics make EBR models attractive in domains typified by medical and legal searching, where the emphasis is on iterative development of  reproducible complex queries of dozens or even hundreds of terms. However, EBR is much more computationally expensive than the alternatives. We consider the implementation of the p-norm approach to EBR, and demonstrate that ideas used in the max-score and wand exact optimization techniques for ranked keyword retrieval can be adaptedto allow selective bypass of documents via a low-cost screening process for this and similar retrieval models. We also propose term independent bounds that are able to further reduce the number of score calculations for short, simple queries under the extended Boolean retrieval model. Together, these methods yield an overall saving from 50 to 80percent of the evaluation cost on test queries drawn from biomedical search. 2012
 14 Improving Aggregate Recommendation Diversity Using Ranking-Based Techniques Recommender systems are becoming increasingly important to individual users and businesses for providingpersonalized recommendations. However, while the majority of algorithms proposed in recommender systems literature have focused on improving recommendation accuracy (as exemplified by the recent Netflix Prize competition) , other important aspects of recommendation quality, such as the diversity of recommendations, have often been  overlooked. In this paper, we introduce and explore a number of item ranking techniques that can generate recommendations that have substantially higher aggregate diversity across all users while maintaining comparable levels of recommendation accuracy. Comprehensive empirical evaluation consistently shows the diversity gains of the proposed techniques using several real-world rating datasets and different rating prediction algorithms.
 15 BibPro: A Citation Parser Based on Sequence Alignment Dramatic increase in the number of academic publications has led to growing demand for efficient organization of the resources to meet researchers’ needs. As a result, a number of network services have compiled databases from the public resources scattered over the Internet. However, publications by different conferences and journals adopt different citation styles. It is an interesting problem to accurately extract metadata from a citation string which is formatted in one of thousands of different styles. It has attracted a great deal of attention in research in recent years. In this paper, based on the notion of sequence alignment, we present a citation parser called BibPro that extracts components of a citation string. To demonstrate the efficacy of BibPro, we conducted experiments on three benchmark data sets. The results show that BibPro achieved over 90 percent accuracy on each benchmark. Even with citations and associated metadata retrieved from the web as training data, our experiments show that BibPro still achieves a reasonable performance 2012
 16 Extending Attribute Information for Small Data Set Classification Data quantity is the main issue in the small data set problem, because usually insufficient data will not lead to a robust classification performance. How to extract more effective information from a small data set is thus of considerable interest. This paper proposes a new attribute construction approach which converts the original data attributes into a higher dimensional feature space to extract more attribute information by a similarity-based algorithm using the classification-oriented fuzzy membership function. Seven data sets with different attribute sizes are employed to examine the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method has a superior classification performance when compared to principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), and kernel independent component analysis (KICA) with a Gaussian kernel in the support vector machine (SVM) classifier 2012
 17 Horizontal Aggregations in SQL to Prepare Data Sets for Data Mining Analysis Preparing a data set for analysis is generally the most time consuming task in a data mining project, requiring many complex SQL queries, joining tables, and aggregating columns. Existing SQL aggregations have limitations to prepare data sets because they return one column per aggregated group. In general, a significant manual effort is required to build data sets, where a horizontal layout is required. We propose simple, yet powerful, methods to generate SQL code to return aggregated columns in a horizontal tabular layout, returning a set of numbers instead of one number per row. This new class of functions is called horizontal aggregations. Horizontal aggregations build data sets with a horizontal denormalized layout (e.g., point-dimension, observationvariable, instance-feature), which is the standard layout required by most data mining algorithms. We propose three fundamental methods to evaluate horizontal aggregations: CASE: Exploiting the programming CASE construct; SPJ: Based on standard relational algebra operators (SPJ queries); PIVOT: Using the PIVOT operator, which is offered by some DBMSs. Experiments with large tables compare the proposed query evaluation methods. Our CASE method has similar speed to the PIVOT operator and it is much faster than the SPJ method. In general, the CASE and PIVOT methods exhibit linear scalability, whereas the SPJ method does 2012
 18 Enabling Multilevel Trust in Privacy Preserving Data Mining Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM) addresses the problem of developing accurate models about aggregated data without access to precise information in individual data record. A widely studied perturbation-based PPDM approach introduces random perturbation to individual values to preserve privacy before data are published. Previous solutions of this approach are limited in their tacit assumption of single-level trust on data miners. In this work, we relax this assumption and expand the scope of perturbation-based PPDM to Multilevel Trust (MLT-PPDM). In our setting, the more trusted a data miner is, the less perturbed copy of the data it can access. Under this setting, a malicious data miner may have access to differently perturbed copies of the same data through various means, and may combine these diverse copies to jointly infer additional information about the original data that the data owner does not intend to release. Preventing such diversity attacks is the key challenge of providing MLT-PPDM services. We address this challenge by properly correlating perturbation across copies at different trust levels. We prove that our solution is robust against diversity attacks with respect to our privacy goal. That is, for data miners who have access to an arbitrary collection of the perturbed copies, our solution prevent them from jointly reconstructing the original data more accurately than the best effort using any individual copy in the collection. Our solution allows a data owner to generate perturbed copies of its data for arbitrary trust levels ondemand.This feature offers data owners maximum flexibility. 2012
 19 Using Rule Ontology in Repeated Rule Acquisition from Similar Web Sites Inferential rules are as essential to the Semantic Web applications as ontology. Therefore, rule acquisition is also an  important issue, and the Web that implies inferential rules can be a major source of rule acquisition. We expect that it will be easier to acquire rules from a site by using similar rules of other sites in the same domain rather than starting from scratch. We proposed an automatic rule acquisition procedure using a rule ontology RuleToOnto, which represents information about the rule components and their structures. The rule acquisition procedure consists of the rule component identification step and the rule composition step. We developed A* algorithm for the rule composition and we performed experiments demonstrating that our ontology-based rule acquisition approach works in a real-world application. 2012
 20 Efficient Processing of Uncertain Events in Rule-Based Systems There is a growing need for systems that react automatically to events. While some events are generated externally and deliver data across distributed systems, others need to be derived by the system itself based on available information. Event derivation is hampered by uncertainty attributed to causes such as unreliable data sources or the inability to determine with certainty whether an event has actually occurred, given available information. Two main challenges exist when designing a solution for event derivation under uncertainty. First, event derivation should scale under heavy loads of incoming events. Second, the associated probabilities must be correctly captured and represented. We present a solution to both problems by introducing a novel generic and formal mechanism and framework for managing event derivation under uncertainty. We also provide empirical evidence demonstrating the scalability and accuracy of our approach 2012
 21 Feature Selection Based on Class-Dependent Densities for High-Dimensional Binary Data Data and knowledge management systems employ feature selection algorithms for removing irrelevant, redundant, and noisy information from the data. There are two well-known approaches to feature selection, feature ranking (FR) and feature subset selection (FSS). In this paper, we propose a new FR algorithm, termed as class-dependent density-based feature elimination (CDFE), for binary data sets. Our theoretical analysis shows that CDFE computes the weights, used for feature ranking, more efficiently as compared to the mutual information measure. Effectively, rankings obtained from both the two criteria approximate each other. CDFE uses a filtrapper approach to select a final subset. For data sets having hundreds of thousands of features, feature selection with FR algorithms is simple and computationally efficient but redundant information may not be removed. On the other hand, FSS algorithms analyze the data for redundancies but may become computationally impractical on high-dimensional data sets. We address these problems by combining FR and FSS methods in the form of a two-stage feature selection algorithm. When introduced as a preprocessing step to the FSS algorithms, CDFE not only presents them with a feature subset, good in terms of classification, but also relieves them from heavy computations. Two FSS algorithms are employed in the second stage to test the two-stage feature selection idea. We carry out experiments with two different classifiers (naive Bayes’ and kernel ridge regression) on three different real-life data sets (NOVA, HIVA, and GINA) of the”Agnostic Learning versus Prior Knowledge” challenge. As a stand-alone method, CDFE shows up to about 92 percent reduction in the feature set size. When combined with the FSS algorithms in two-stages, CDFE significantly improves their classification accuracy and exhibits up to 97 percent reduction in the feature set size. We also compared CDFE against the winning entries of the challenge and f- und that it outperforms the best results on NOVA and HIVA while obtaining a third position in case of GINA. 2012
  1. 22.
Ranking Model Adaptation for Domain-Specific Search With the explosive emergence of vertical search domains, applying the broad-based ranking model directly to different domains is no longer desirable due to domain differences, while building a unique ranking model for each domain is both laborious for labeling data and time-consuming for training models. In this paper, we address these difficulties by proposing a regularization based algorithm called ranking adaptation SVM (RA-SVM), through which we can adapt an existing ranking model to a new domain, so that the amount of labeled data and the training cost is reduced while the performance is still guaranteed. Our algorithm only requires the prediction from the existing ranking models, rather than their internal representations or the data from auxiliary domains. In addition, we assume that documents similar in the domain-specific feature space should have consistent rankings, and add some constraints to control the margin and slack variables of RA-SVM adaptively. Finally, ranking adaptability measurement is proposed to quantitatively estimate if an existing ranking model can be adapted to a new domain. Experiments performed over Letor and two large scale datasets crawled from a commercial search engine demonstrate the applicabilities of the proposed ranking adaptation algorithms and the ranking adaptability measurement. 2012
 23 Slicing: A New Approach to Privacy Preserving Data Publishing Several anonymization techniques, such as generalization and bucketization, have been designed for privacy preserving microdata publishing. Recent work has shown that general ization loses considerable amount of information, especially for high-dimensional data. Bucketization, on the other hand, does not prevent membership disclosure and does not apply for data that do not have a clear separation between quasi- identifying attributes and sensitive attributes. In this paper, we present a novel technique called slicing, which partitions the data both horizontally and vertically. We show that slicing preserves better data utility than generalization and can be used for membership disclosure protection. Another important advantage of slicing is that it can handle high-dimensional data. We show how slicing can be used for attribute disclosure protection and develop an efficient algorithm for computing the sliced data that obey the ℓ-diversity requirement. Our workload experiments confirm that slicing preserves better utility than generalization and is more effective than bucketization in workloads involving the sensitive attribute. Our experiments also demonstrate that slicing can be used to prevent membership disclosure. 2012
  1. 24.
Improving Aggregate Recommendation Diversity Using Ranking-Based Techniques- projects Recommender systems are becoming increasingly important to individual users and businesses for providing personalized recommendations. However, while the majority of algorithms proposed in recommender systems literature have focused on improving recommendation accuracy, other important aspects of recommendation quality, such as the diversity of recommendations, have often been overlooked. In this paper, we introduce and explore a number of item ranking techniques that can generate recommendations that have substantially higher aggregate diversity across all users while maintaining comparable levels of recommendation accuracy. Comprehensive empirical evaluation consistently shows the diversity gains of the proposed techniques using several real-world rating datasets and different rating prediction algorithms. 2012
  1. 25.
Horizontal Aggregations in SQL to Prepare Data Sets for Data Mining Analysis Preparing a data set for analysis is generally the most time consuming task in a data mining project, requiring many complex SQL queries, joining tables and aggregating columns. Existing SQL aggregations have limitations to prepare data sets because they return one column per aggregated group. In general, a significant manual effort is required to
build data sets, where a horizontal layout is required. We propose simple, yet powerful, methods to generate SQL code to return aggregated columns in a horizontal tabular layout, returning a set of numbers instead of one number per row. This new class of functions is called horizontal aggregations.
Horizontal aggregations build data sets with a horizontal denormalized layout (e.g. point-dimension, observation-variable, instance-feature), which is the standard layout required by most data mining algorithms. We propose three fundamental methods to evaluate horizontal aggregations: CASE: Exploiting
the programming CASE construct; SPJ: Based on standard relational algebra operators (SPJ queries); PIVOT: Using the PIVOT operator, which is offered by some DBMSs. Experiments with large tables compare the proposed query evaluation methods. Our CASE method has similar speed to the PIVOT operator and it is much faster than the SPJ method. In general, the CASE and PIVOT methods exhibit linear scalability, whereasthe SPJ method does not
2012
  1. 26.
Scalable Learning of Collective Behavior -  projects 2012 This study of collective behavior is to understand how individuals behave in a social networking environment. Oceans of data generated by social media like Face book, Twitter, Flicker, and YouTube present opportunities and challenges to study collective behavior on a large scale. In this work, we aim to learn to predict collective behavior in social media. In particular, given information about some individuals, how can we infer the behavior of unobserved individuals in the same network? A social-dimension-based approach has been shown effective in addressing the heterogeneity of connections presented in social media. However, the networks in social media are normally of colossal size, involving hundreds of thousands of actors. The scale of these networks entails scalable learning of models for collective behavior prediction. To address the scalability issue, we propose an edge-centric clustering scheme to extract sparse social dimensions. With sparse social dimensions, the proposed approach can efficiently handle networks of millions of actors while demonstrating a comparable prediction performance to other non-scalable methods 2012
  1. 27.
Outsourced Similarity Search on Metric Data Assets – projects This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example. Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low-initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying it to the service provider for similarity queries on the transformed data. Our techniques provide interesting trade-offs between query cost and accuracy. They are then further extended to offer an intuitive privacy guarantee. Empirical studies with real data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of offering privacy while enabling efficient and accurate processing of similarity queries. 2012
 28 A Framework for Similarity Search of Time Series Cliques with Natural Relations A Time Series Clique (TSC) consists of multiple time series which are related to each other by natural relations. The natural relations that are found between the time series depend on the application domains. For example, a TSC can consist of time series which are trajectories in video that have spatial relations. In conventional time series retrieval, such natural relations between the time series are not considered. In this paper, we formalize the problem of similarity search over a TSC database. We develop a novel framework for efficient similarity search on TSC data. The framework addresses the following issues. First, it provides a compact representation for TSC data. Second, it uses a multidimensional relation vector to capture the natural relations between the multiple time series in a TSC. Lastly, the framework defines a novel similarity measure that uses the compact representation and the relation vector. We conduct an extensive performance study, using both real-life and synthetic data sets. From the performance study, we show that our proposed framework is both effective and efficient for TSC retrieval 2012
 29 A Genetic Programming Approach to Record Deduplication Several systems that rely on consistent data to offer high-quality services, such as digital libraries and e-commerce brokers, may be affected by the existence of duplicates, quasi replicas, or near-duplicate entries in their repositories. Because of that, there have been significant investments from private and government organizations for developing methods for removing replicas from its data repositories. This is due to the fact that clean and replica-free repositories not only allow the retrieval of higher quality information but also lead to more concise data and to potential savings in computational time and resources to process this data. In this paper, we propose a genetic programming approach to record deduplication that combines several different pieces of evidence extracted from the data content to find a deduplication function that is able to identify whether two entries in a repository are replicas or not. As shown by our experiments, our approach outperforms an existing state-of-the-art method found in the literature. Moreover, the suggested functions are computationally less demanding since they use fewer evidence. In addition, our genetic programming approach is capable of automatically adapting these functions to a given fixed replica identification boundary, freeing the user from the burden of having to choose and tune this parameter. 2012
 30 A Probabilistic Scheme for Keyword-Based Incremental Query Construction Databases enable users to precisely express their informational needs using structured queries. However, database query construction is a laborious and error-prone process, which cannot be performed well by most end users. Keyword search alleviates the usability problem at the price of query expressiveness. As keyword search algorithms do not differentiate between the possible informational needs represented by a keyword query, users may not receive adequate results. This paper presents IQP – a novel approach to bridge the gap between usability of keyword search and expressiveness of database queries. IQP enables a user to start with an arbitrary keyword query and incrementally refine it into a structured query through an interactive interface. The enabling techniques of IQP include: 1) a probabilistic framework for incremental query construction; 2) a probabilistic model to assess the possible informational needs represented by a keyword query; 3) an algorithm to obtain the optimal query construction process. This paper presents the detailed design of IQP, and demonstrates its effectiveness and scalability through experiments over real-world data and a user study. 2012
 31 Anónimos An LP-Based Approach for Anonymizing Weighted Social Network Graphs The increasing popularity of social networks has initiated a fertile research area in information extraction and data mining. Anonymization of these social graphs is important to facilitate publishing these data sets for analysis by external entities. Prior work has concentrated mostly on node identity anonymization and structural anonymization. But with the growing interest in analyzing social networks as a weighted network, edge weight anonymization is also gaining importance. We present Anónimos, a Linear Programming-based technique for anonymization of edge weights that preserves linear properties of graphs. Such properties form the foundation of many important graph-theoretic algorithms such as shortest paths problem, k-nearest neighbors, minimum cost spanning tree, and maximizing information spread. As a proof of concept, we apply Anónimos to the shortest paths problem and its extensions, prove the correctness, analyze complexity, and experimentally evaluate it using real social network data sets. Our experiments demonstrate that Anónimos anonymizes the weights, improves k-anonymity of the weights, and also scrambles the relative ordering of the edges sorted by weights, thereby providing robust and effective anonymization of the sensitive edge-weights. We also demonstrate the composability of different models generated using Anónimos, a property that allows a single anonymized graph to preserve multiple linear properties. 2012
 32 Answering General Time-Sensitive Queries Time is an important dimension of relevance for a large number of searches, such as over blogs and news archives. So far, research on searching over such collections has largely focused on locating topically similar documents for a query. Unfortunately, topic similarity alone is not always sufficient for document ranking. In this paper, we observe that, for an important class of queries that we call time-sensitive queries, the publication time of the documents in a news archive is important and should be considered in conjunction with the topic similarity to derive the final document ranking. Earlier work has focused on improving retrieval for “recency” queries that target recent documents. We propose a more general framework for handling time-sensitive queries and we automatically identify the important time intervals that are likely to be of interest for a query. Then, we build scoring techniques that seamlessly integrate the temporal aspect into the overall ranking mechanism. We present an extensive experimental evaluation using a variety of news article data sets, including TREC data as well as real web data analyzed using the Amazon Mechanical Turk. We examine several techniques for detecting the important time intervals for a query over a news archive and for incorporating this information in the retrieval process. We show that our techniques are robust and significantly improve result quality for time-sensitive queries compared to state-of-the-art retrieval techniques. 2012
 33 Clustering with Multiviewpoint-Based Similarity Measure All clustering methods have to assume some cluster relationship among the data objects that they are applied on. Similarity between a pair of objects can be defined either explicitly or implicitly. In this paper, we introduce a novel multiviewpoint-based similarity measure and two related clustering methods. The major difference between a traditional dissimilarity/similarity measure and ours is that the former uses only a single viewpoint, which is the origin, while the latter utilizes many different viewpoints, which are objects assumed to not be in the same cluster with the two objects being measured. Using multiple viewpoints, more informative assessment of similarity could be achieved. Theoretical analysis and empirical study are conducted to support this claim. Two criterion functions for document clustering are proposed based on this new measure. We compare them with several well-known clustering algorithms that use other popular similarity measures on various document collections to verify the advantages of our proposal. 2012
 34 Cluster-Oriented Ensemble Classifier Impact of Multicluster Characterization on Ensemble Classifier Learning This paper presents a novel cluster-oriented ensemble classifier. The proposed ensemble classifier is based on original concepts such as learning of cluster boundaries by the base classifiers and mapping of cluster confidences to class decision using a fusion classifier. The categorized data set is characterized into multiple clusters and fed to a number of distinctive base classifiers. The base classifiers learn cluster boundaries and produce cluster confidence vectors. A second level fusion classifier combines the cluster confidences and maps to class decisions. The proposed ensemble classifier modifies the learning domain for the base classifiers and facilitates efficient learning. The proposed approach is evaluated on benchmark data sets from UCI machine learning repository to identify the impact of multicluster boundaries on classifier learning and classification accuracy. The experimental results and two-tailed sign test demonstrate the superiority of the proposed cluster-oriented ensemble classifier over existing ensemble classifiers published in the literature. 2012
Effective Pattern Discovery for Text Mining Many data mining techniques have been proposed for mining useful patterns in text documents. However, how to effectively use and update discovered patterns is still an open research issue, especially in the domain of text mining. Since most existing text mining methods adopted term-based approaches, they all suffer from the problems of polysemy and synonymy. Over the years, people have often held the hypothesis that pattern (or phrase)-based approaches should perform better than the term-based ones, but many experiments do not support this hypothesis. This paper presents an innovative and effective pattern discovery technique which includes the processes of pattern deploying and pattern evolving, to improve the effectiveness of using and updating discovered patterns for finding relevant and interesting information. Substantial experiments on RCV1 data collection and TREC topics demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves encouraging performance. 2012
 35 Efficient Fuzzy Type-Ahead Search in XML Data In a traditional keyword-search system over XML data, a user composes a keyword query, submits it to the system, and retrieves relevant answers. In the case where the user has limited knowledge about the data, often the user feels “left in the dark” when issuing queries, and has to use a try-and-see approach for finding information. In this paper, we study fuzzy type-ahead search in XML data, a new information-access paradigm in which the system searches XML data on the fly as the user types in query keywords. It allows users to explore data as they type, even in the presence of minor errors of their keywords. Our proposed method has the following features: 1) Search as you type: It extends Autocomplete by supporting queries with multiple keywords in XML data. 2) Fuzzy: It can find high-quality answers that have keywords matching query keywords approximately. 3) Efficient: Our effective index structures and searching algorithms can achieve a very high interactive speed. We study research challenges in this new search framework. We propose effective index structures and top-k algorithms to achieve a high interactive speed. We examine effective ranking functions and early termination techniques to progressively identify the top-k relevant answers. We have implemented our method on real data sets, and the experimental results show that our method achieves high search efficiency and result quality. 2012
 36 Feature Selection Based on Class-Dependent Densities for High-Dimensional Binary Data Data and knowledge management systems employ feature selection algorithms for removing irrelevant, redundant, and noisy information from the data. There are two well-known approaches to feature selection, feature ranking (FR) and feature subset selection (FSS). In this paper, we propose a new FR algorithm, termed as class-dependent density-based feature elimination (CDFE), for binary data sets. Our theoretical analysis shows that CDFE computes the weights, used for feature ranking, more efficiently as compared to the mutual information measure. Effectively, rankings obtained from both the two criteria approximate each other. CDFE uses a filtrapper approach to select a final subset. For data sets having hundreds of thousands of features, feature selection with FR algorithms is simple and computationally efficient but redundant information may not be removed. On the other hand, FSS algorithms analyze the data for redundancies but may become computationally impractical on high-dimensional data sets. We address these problems by combining FR and FSS methods in the form of a two-stage feature selection algorithm. When introduced as a preprocessing step to the FSS algorithms, CDFE not only presents them with a feature subset, good in terms of classification, but also relieves them from heavy computations. Two FSS algorithms are employed in the second stage to test the two-stage feature selection idea. We carry out experiments with two different classifiers (naive Bayes’ and kernel ridge regression) on three different real-life data sets (NOVA, HIVA, and GINA) of the”Agnostic Learning versus Prior Knowledge” challenge. As a stand-alone method, CDFE shows up to about 92 percent reduction in the feature set size. When combined with the FSS algorithms in two-stages, CDFE significantly improves their classification accuracy and exhibits up to 97 percent reduction in the feature set size. We also compared CDFE against the winning entries of the challenge and f- und that it outperforms the best results on NOVA and HIVA while obtaining a third position in case of GINA. 2012
 37 Feedback Matching Framework for Semantic Interoperability of Product Data There is a need to promote drastically increased levels of interoperability of product data across a broad spectrum of stakeholders, while ensuring that the semantics of product knowledge are preserved, and when necessary, translated. In order to achieve this, multiple methods have been proposed to determine semantic maps across concepts from different representations. Previous research has focused on developing different individual matching methods, i.e., ones that compute mapping based on a single matching measure. These efforts assume that some weighted combination can be used to obtain the overall maps. We analyze the problem of combination of multiple individual methods to determine requirements specific to product development and propose a solution approach called FEedback Matching Framework with Implicit Training (FEMFIT). FEMFIT provides the ability to combine the different matching approaches using ranking Support Vector Machine (ranking SVM). The method accounts for nonlinear relations between the individual matchers. It overcomes the need to explicitly train the algorithm before it is used, and further reduces the decision-making load on the domain expert by implicitly capturing the expert’s decisions without requiring him to input real numbers on similarity. We apply FEMFIT to a subset of product constraints across a commercial system and the ISO standard. We observe that FEMIT demonstrates better accuracy (average correctness of the results) and stability (deviation from the average) in comparison with other existing combination methods commonly assumed to be valid in this domain. 2012
 38 Fractal-Based Intrinsic Dimension Estimation and Its Application in Dimensionality Reduction Dimensionality reduction is an important step in knowledge discovery in databases. Intrinsic dimension indicates the number of variables necessary to describe a data set. Two methods, box-counting dimension and correlation dimension, are commonly used for intrinsic dimension estimation. However, the robustness of these two methods has not been rigorously studied. This paper demonstrates that correlation dimension is more robust with respect to data sample size. In addition, instead of using a user selected distance d, we propose a new approach to capture all log-log pairs of a data set to more precisely estimate the correlation dimension. Systematic experiments are conducted to study factors that influence the computation of correlation dimension, including sample size, the number of redundant variables, and the portion of log-log plot used for calculation. Experiments on real-world data sets confirm the effectiveness of intrinsic dimension estimation with our improved method. Furthermore, a new supervised dimensionality reduction method based on intrinsic dimension estimation was introduced and validated. 2012
 39 Horizontal Aggregations in SQL to Prepare Data Sets for Data Mining Analysis Preparing a data set for analysis is generally the most time consuming task in a data mining project, requiring many complex SQL queries, joining tables, and aggregating columns. Existing SQL aggregations have limitations to prepare data sets because they return one column per aggregated group. In general, a significant manual effort is required to build data sets, where a horizontal layout is required. We propose simple, yet powerful, methods to generate SQL code to return aggregated columns in a horizontal tabular layout, returning a set of numbers instead of one number per row. This new class of functions is called horizontal aggregations. Horizontal aggregations build data sets with a horizontal denormalized layout (e.g., point-dimension, observation-variable, instance-feature), which is the standard layout required by most data mining algorithms. We propose three fundamental methods to evaluate horizontal aggregations: CASE: Exploiting the programming CASE construct; SPJ: Based on standard relational algebra operators (SPJ queries); PIVOT: Using the PIVOT operator, which is offered by some DBMSs. Experiments with large tables compare the proposed query evaluation methods. Our CASE method has similar speed to the PIVOT operator and it is much faster than the SPJ method. In general, the CASE and PIVOT methods exhibit linear scalability, whereas the SPJ method does not. 2012
 40 Low-Rank Kernel Matrix Factorization for Large-Scale Evolutionary Clustering Traditional clustering techniques are inapplicable to problems where the relationships between data points evolve over time. Not only is it important for the clustering algorithm to adapt to the recent changes in the evolving data, but it also needs to take the historical relationship between the data points into consideration. In this paper, we propose ECKF, a general framework for evolutionary clustering large-scale data based on low-rank kernel matrix factorization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that clusters large evolutionary data sets by the amalgamation of low-rank matrix approximation methods and matrix factorization-based clustering. Since the low-rank approximation provides a compact representation of the original matrix, and especially, the near-optimal low-rank approximation can preserve the sparsity of the original data, ECKF gains computational efficiency and hence is applicable to large evolutionary data sets. Moreover, matrix factorization-based methods have been shown to effectively cluster high-dimensional data in text mining and multimedia data analysis. From a theoretical standpoint, we mathematically prove the convergence and correctness of ECKF, and provide detailed analysis of its computational efficiency (both time and space). Through extensive experiments performed on synthetic and real data sets, we show that ECKF outperforms the existing methods in evolutionary clustering. 2012
 41 Mining Online Reviews for Predicting Sales Performance A Case Study in the Movie Domain Posting reviews online has become an increasingly popular way for people to express opinions and sentiments toward the products bought or services received. Analyzing the large volume of online reviews available would produce useful actionable knowledge that could be of economic values to vendors and other interested parties. In this paper, we conduct a case study in the movie domain, and tackle the problem of mining reviews for predicting product sales performance. Our analysis shows that both the sentiments expressed in the reviews and the quality of the reviews have a significant impact on the future sales performance of products in question. For the sentiment factor, we propose Sentiment PLSA (S-PLSA), in which a review is considered as a document generated by a number of hidden sentiment factors, in order to capture the complex nature of sentiments. Training an S-PLSA model enables us to obtain a succinct summary of the sentiment information embedded in the reviews. Based on S-PLSFA, we propose ARSA, an Autoregressive Sentiment-Aware model for sales prediction. We then seek to further improve the accuracy of prediction by considering the quality factor, with a focus on predicting the quality of a review in the absence of user-supplied indicators, and present ARSQA, an Autoregressive Sentiment and Quality Aware model, to utilize sentiments and quality for predicting product sales performance. Extensive experiments conducted on a large movie data set confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach. 2012
 42 Privacy Preserving Decision Tree Learning Using Unrealized Data Sets Privacy preservation is important for machine learning and data mining, but measures designed to protect private information often result in a trade-off: reduced utility of the training samples. This paper introduces a privacy preserving approach that can be applied to decision tree learning, without concomitant loss of accuracy. It describes an approach to the preservation of the privacy of collected data samples in cases where information from the sample database has been partially lost. This approach converts the original sample data sets into a group of unreal data sets, from which the original samples cannot be reconstructed without the entire group of unreal data sets. Meanwhile, an accurate decision tree can be built directly from those unreal data sets. This novel approach can be applied directly to the data storage as soon as the first sample is collected. The approach is compatible with other privacy preserving approaches, such as cryptography, for extra protection 2012

 

TECHNOLOGY                                : JAVA DOMAIN                                            : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING

 

 

S.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
 1 The Boomerang Protocol: Tying Data to Geographic Locations in Mobile Disconnected Networks We present the boomerang protocol to efficiently retain information at a particular geographic location in a sparse network of highly mobile nodes without using infrastructure networks. To retain information around certain physical location, each mobile device passing that location will carry the information for a short while. 2012
 2 Nature-Inspired Self-Organization, Control, and Optimization in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks In this paper, we present new models and algorithms for control and optimization of a class of next generation communication networks: Hierarchical Heterogeneous Wireless Networks (HHWNs), under real-world physical constraints. Two biology-inspired techniques, a Flocking Algorithm (FA) and a Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO), are investigated in this context. 2012
 3 A Cost Analysis Framework for NEMO Prefix Delegation-Based Schemes In this paper, we have developed analytical framework to measure the costs of the basic protocol for Network Mobility (NEMO), and four representative prefix delegation-based schemes. Our results show that cost of packet delivery through the partially optimized route dominates over other costs. 2012
 4 OMAN: A Mobile Ad Hoc Network Design System In this paper, we present a high-level view of the OMAN architecture, review specific mathematical models used in the network representation, and show how OMAN is used to evaluate tradeoffs in MANET design. Specifically, we cover three case studies of optimization. 1-robust power control under uncertain channel information for a single physical layer snapshot. 2-scheduling with the availability of directional radiation patterns. 3-optimizing topology through movement planning of relay nodes. 2012
 5 Energy-Efficient Cooperative Video Distribution with Statistical QoS Provisions over Wireless Networks In this paper, we formulate the resource allocation problem for general multihop multicast network flows and derive the optimal solution that minimizes the total energy consumption while guaranteeing a statistical end-to-end delay bound on each network path. 2012
 6 Leveraging the Algebraic Connectivity of a Cognitive Network for Routing Design In this paper, we consider the implications of spectrum heterogeneity on connectivity and routing in a Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network (CRAHN). We study the Laplacian spectrum of the CRAHN graph when the activity of primary users is considered. We introduce the cognitive algebraic connectivity, i.e., the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian of a graph, in a cognitive scenario. 2012
 7 Efficient Virtual Backbone Construction with Routing Cost Constraint in Wireless Networks Using Directional Antennas In this paper, we will study a directional virtual backbone (VB) in the network where directional antennas are used. When constructing a VB, we will take routing and broadcasting into account since they are two common operations in wireless networks. Hence, we will study a VB with guaranteed routing costs, named ? Minimum rOuting Cost Directional VB (?-MOC-DVB). 2012
 8 Stateless Multicast Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks. In this paper, we have developed a stateless receiver-based multicast (RBMulticast) protocol that simply uses a list of the multicast members’ (e.g., sinks’) addresses, embedded in packet headers, to enable receivers to decide the best way to forward the multicast traffic. 2012
 9 Detection of Selfish Manipulation of Carrier Sensing in 802.11 Networks CCA tuning can be exploited by selfish nodes to obtain an unfair share of the available bandwidth. Specifically, a selfish entity can manipulate the CCA threshold to ignore ongoing transmissions; this increases the probability of accessing the medium and provides the entity a higher, unfair share of the bandwidth. 2012
 10 Handling Selfishness in Replica Allocation over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network In a mobile ad hoc network, the mobility and resource constraints of mobile nodes may lead to network partitioning or performance degradation. Several data replication techniques have been proposed to minimize performance degradation. Most of them assume that all mobile nodes collaborate fully in terms of sharing their memory space. In reality, however, some nodes may selfishly decide only to cooperate partially, or not at all, with other nodes. These selfish nodes could then reduce the overall data accessibility in the network. In this paper, we examine the impact of selfish nodes in a mobile ad hoc network from the perspective of replica allocation. We term this selfish replica allocation. In particular, we develop a selfish node detection algorithm that considers partial selfishness and novel replica allocation techniques to properly cope with selfish replica allocation. The conducted simulations demonstrate the proposed approach outperforms traditional cooperative replica allocation techniques in terms of data accessibility,communication cost, and average query delay. 2012
 11 Acknowledgment-Based Broadcast Protocol for Reliable and Efficient Data Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks We propose a broadcast algorithm suitable for a wide range of vehicular scenarios, which only employs local information acquired via periodic beacon messages, containing acknowledgments of the circulated broadcast messages. Each vehicle decides whether it belongs to a connected dominating set (CDS). Vehicles in the CDS use a shorter waiting period before possible retransmission. At time-out expiration, a vehicle retransmits if it is aware of at least one neighbor in need of the message. To address intermittent connectivity and appearance of new neighbors, the evaluation timer can be restarted. Our algorithm resolves propagation at road intersections without any need to even recognize intersections. It is inherently adaptable to different mobility regimes, without the need to classify network or vehicle speeds. In a thorough simulation-based performance evaluation, our algorithm is shown to provide higher reliability and message efficiency than existing approaches for nonsafety applications. 2012
 12 Toward Reliable Data Delivery for Highly Dynamic Mobile Ad Hoc Networks This paper addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner. Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. Driven by this issue, we propose an efficient Position-based Opportunistic Routing (POR) protocol which takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. By utilizing such in-the-air backup, communication is maintained without being interrupted. The additional latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. In the case of communication hole, a Virtual Destination-based Void Handling (VDVH) scheme is further proposed to work together with POR. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that POR achieves excellent performance even under high node mobility with acceptable overhead and the new void handling scheme also works well. 2012
 13 Protecting Location Privacy in Sensor Networks against a Global Eavesdropper While many protocols for sensor network security provide confidentiality for the content of messages, contextual information usually remains exposed. Such contextual information can be exploited by an adversary to derive sensitive information such as the locations of monitored objects and data sinks in the field. Attacks on these components can significantly undermine any network application. Existing techniques defend the leakage of location information from a limited adversary who can only observe network traffic in a small region. However, a stronger adversary, the global eavesdropper, is realistic and can defeat these existing techniques. This paper first formalizes the location privacy issues in sensor networks under this strong adversary model and computes a lower bound on the communication overhead needed for achieving a given level of location privacy. The paper then proposes two techniques to provide location privacy to monitored objects (source-location privacy)—periodic collection and source simulation—and two techniques to provide location privacy to data sinks (sink-location privacy)—sink simulation and backbone flooding. These techniques provide trade-offs between privacy, communication cost, and latency. Through analysis and simulation, we demonstrate that the proposed techniques are efficient and effective for source and sink-location privacy in sensor networks. 20
  1. 14.
local broadcast algorithms in wireless ad hoc networks reducing the number of transmissions There are two main approaches, static and dynamic, to broadcast algorithms in wireless ad hoc networks. In the static approach, local algorithms determine the status (forwarding/nonforwarding) of each node proactively based on local topology information and a globally known priority function. In this paper, we first show that local broadcast algorithms based on the static approach cannot achieve a good approximation factor to the optimum solution (an NP-hard problem). However, we show that a constant approximation factor is achievable if (relative) position information is available. In the dynamic approach, local algorithms determine the status of each node “on-the-fly” based on local topology information and broadcast state information. Using the dynamic approach, it was recently shown that local broadcast algorithms can achieve a constant approximation factor to the optimum solution when (approximate) position information is available. However, using position information can simplify the problem. Also, in some applications it may not be practical to have position information. Therefore, we wish to know whether local broadcast algorithms based on the dynamic approach can achieve a constant approximation factor without using position information. We answer this question in the positive – we design a local broadcast algorithm in which the status of each node is decided “on-the-fly” and prove that the algorithm can achieve both full delivery and a constant approximation to the optimum solution 2012
  1. 15.
Compressed-Sensing-Enabled Video Streaming for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks This article presents the design of a networked system for joint compression, rate control and error correction of video over resource-constrained embedded devices based on the theory of compressed sensing. The objective of this work is to design a cross-layer system that jointly controls the video encoding rate, the transmission rate, and the channel coding rate to maximize the received video quality. First, compressed sensing based video encoding for transmission over wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) is studied. It is shown that compressed sensing can overcome many of the current problems of video over WMSNs, primarily encoder complexity and low resiliency to channel errors. A rate controller is then developed with the objective of maintaining fairness among video streams while maximizing the received video quality. It is shown that the rate of compressed sensed video can be predictably controlled by varying only the compressed sensing sampling rate. It is then shown that the developed rate controller can be interpreted as the iterative solution to a convex optimization problem representing the optimization of the rate allocation across the network. The error resiliency properties of compressed sensed images and videos are then studied, and an optimal error detection and correction scheme is presented for video transmission over lossy channels. Finally, the entire system is evaluated through simulation and testbed evaluation. The rate controller is shown to outperform existing TCP-friendly rate control schemes in terms of both fairness and received video quality. Testbed results also show that the rates converge to stable values in real channels. 2012
  1. 16.
Hop-by-Hop Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Bandwidth Guarantees Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) has become an important edge network to provide Internet access to remote areas and wireless connections in a metropolitan scale. In this paper, we study the problem of identifying the maximum available bandwidth path, a fundamental issue in supporting quality-of-service in WMNs. Due to interference among links, bandwidth, a well-known bottleneck metric in wired networks, is neither concave nor additive in wireless networks. We propose a new path weight which captures the available path bandwidth information. We formally prove that our hop-by-hop routing protocol based on the new path weight satisfies the consistency and loop-freeness requirements. The consistency property guarantees that each node makes a proper packet forwarding decision, so that a data packet does traverse over the intended path. Our extensive simulation experiments also show that our proposed path weight outperforms existing path metrics in identifying high-throughput paths 2012
  1. 17.
Handling Selfishness in Replica Allocation over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network- Mobile Computing, projects 2012 In a mobile ad hoc network, the mobility and resource constraints of mobile nodes may lead to network partitioning or performance degradation. Several data replication techniques have been proposed to minimize performance degradation. Most of them assume that all mobile nodes collaborate fully in terms of sharing their memory space. In reality, however, some nodes may selfishly decide only to cooperate partially, or not at all, with other nodes. These selfish nodes could then reduce the overall data accessibility in the network. In this paper, we examine the impact of selfish nodes in a mobile ad hoc network from the perspective of replica allocation. We term this selfish replica allocation. In particular, we develop a selfish node detection algorithm that considers partial selfishness and novel replica allocation techniques to properly cope with selfish replica allocation. The conducted simulations demonstrate the proposed approach outperforms traditional cooperative replica allocation techniques in terms of data accessibility, communication cost, and average query delay. 2012
  1. 18.
Toward Reliable Data Delivery for Highly Dynamic Mobile Ad Hoc Networks- Mobile Computing, projects 2012 This paper addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner. Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. Driven by this issue, we propose an efficient Position-based Opportunistic Routing (POR) protocol which takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. By utilizing such in-the-air backup, communication is maintained without being interrupted. The additional latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. In the case of communication hole, a Virtual Destination-based Void Handling (VDVH) scheme is further proposed to work together with POR. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that POR achieves excellent performance even under high node mobility with acceptable overhead and the new void handling scheme also works well 2012
  1. 19.
Fast Data Collection in Tree-Based Wireless Sensor Networks- Mobile Computing, projects 2012 We investigate the following fundamental question – how fast can information be collected from a wireless sensor network organized as tree? To address this, we explore and evaluate a number of different techniques using realistic simulation models under the many-to-one communication paradigm known as convergecast. We first consider time scheduling on a single frequency channel with the aim of minimizing the number of time slots required (schedule length) to complete a convergecast. Next, we combine scheduling with transmission power control to mitigate the effects of interference, and show that while power control helps in reducing the schedule length under a single frequency, scheduling transmissions using multiple frequencies is more efficient. We give lower bounds on the schedule length when interference is completely eliminated, and propose algorithms that achieve these bounds. We also evaluate the performance of various channel assignment methods and find empirically that for moderate size networks of about 100 nodes, the use of multi-frequency scheduling can suffice to eliminate most of the interference. Then, the data collection rate no longer remains limited by interference but by the topology of the routing tree. To this end, we construct degree-constrained spanning trees and capacitated minimal spanning trees, and show significant improvement in scheduling performance over different deployment densities. Lastly, we evaluate the impact of different interference and channel models on the schedule length. 2012
  1. 20.
Protecting Location Privacy in Sensor Networks Against a Global EavesdropperJAVA The location privacy issue in sensor networks under this strong adversary model is considered. Proposed two techniques to provide location privacy to monitored objects (source-location privacy)-periodic collection and source simulation-and two techniques to provide location privacy to data sinks (sink-location privacy)-sink simulation and backbone flooding. 2012
  1. 21.
Energy-Efficient Cooperative Video Distribution with Statistical QoS Provisions over Wireless Networks – projects 2012 For real-time video broadcast where multiple users are interested in the same content, mobile-to-mobile cooperation can be utilized to improve delivery efficiency and reduce network utilization. Under such cooperation, however, real-time video transmission requires end-to-end delay bounds. Due to the inherently stochastic nature of wireless fading channels, deterministic delay bounds are prohibitively difficult to guarantee. For a scalable video structure, an alternative is to provide statistical guarantees using the concept of effective capacity/bandwidth by deriving quality of service exponents for each video layer. Using this concept, we formulate the resource allocation problem for general multihop multicast network flows and derive the optimal solution that minimizes the total energy consumption while guaranteeing a statistical end-to-end delay bound on each network path. A method is described to compute the optimal resource allocation at each node in a distributed fashion. Furthermore, we propose low complexity approximation algorithms for energy-efficient flow selection from the set of directed acyclic graphs forming the candidate network flows. The flow selection and resource allocation process is adapted for each video frame according to the channel conditions on the network links. Considering different network topologies, results demonstrate that the proposed resource allocation and flow selection algorithms provide notable performance gains with small optimality gaps at a low computational cost. 2012
 22 A Novel MAC Scheme for Multichannel Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks This paper proposes a novel medium access control (MAC) scheme for multichannel cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks, which achieves high throughput of CR system while protecting primary users (PUs) effectively. In designing the MAC scheme, we consider that the PU signal may cover only a part of the network and the nodes can have the different sensing result for the same PU even on the same channel. By allowing the nodes to use the channel on which the PU exists as long as their transmissions do not disturb the PU, the proposed MAC scheme fully utilizes the spectrum access opportunity. To mitigate the hidden PU problem inherent to multichannel CR networks where the PU signal is detectable only to some nodes, the proposed MAC scheme adjusts the sensing priorities of channels at each node with the PU detection information of other nodes and also limits the transmission power of a CR node to the maximum allowable power for guaranteeing the quality of service requirement of PU. The performance of the proposed MAC scheme is evaluated by using simulation. The simulation results show that the CR system with the proposed MAC accomplishes good performance in throughput and packet delay, while protecting PUs properly 2012
 23 A Statistical Mechanics-Based Framework to Analyze Ad Hoc Networks with Random Access Characterizing the performance of ad hoc networks is one of the most intricate open challenges; conventional ideas based on information-theoretic techniques and inequalities have not yet been able to successfully tackle this problem in its generality. Motivated thus, we promote the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), a particle flow model in statistical mechanics, as a useful analytical tool to study ad hoc networks with random access. Employing the TASEP framework, we first investigate the average end-to-end delay and throughput performance of a linear multihop flow of packets. Additionally, we analytically derive the distribution of delays incurred by packets at each node, as well as the joint distributions of the delays across adjacent hops along the flow. We then consider more complex wireless network models comprising intersecting flows, and propose the partial mean-field approximation (PMFA), a method that helps tightly approximate the throughput performance of the system. We finally demonstrate via a simple example that the PMFA procedure is quite general in that it may be used to accurately evaluate the performance of ad hoc networks with arbitrary topologies. 2012
 24 Acknowledgment-Based Broadcast Protocol for Reliable and Efficient Data Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks We propose a broadcast algorithm suitable for a wide range of vehicular scenarios, which only employs local information acquired via periodic beacon messages, containing acknowledgments of the circulated broadcast messages. Each vehicle decides whether it belongs to a connected dominating set (CDS). Vehicles in the CDS use a shorter waiting period before possible retransmission. At time-out expiration, a vehicle retransmits if it is aware of at least one neighbor in need of the message. To address intermittent connectivity and appearance of new neighbors, the evaluation timer can be restarted. Our algorithm resolves propagation at road intersections without any need to even recognize intersections. It is inherently adaptable to different mobility regimes, without the need to classify network or vehicle speeds. In a thorough simulation-based performance evaluation, our algorithm is shown to provide higher reliability and message efficiency than existing approaches for nonsafety applications. 2012
 25 Characterizing the Security Implications of Third-Party Emergency Alert Systems over Cellular Text Messaging Services Cellular text messaging services are increasingly being relied upon to disseminate critical information during emergencies. Accordingly, a wide range of organizations including colleges and universities now partner with third-party providers that promise to improve physical security by rapidly delivering such messages. Unfortunately, these products do not work as advertised due to limitations of cellular infrastructure and therefore provide a false sense of security to their users. In this paper, we perform the first extensive investigation and characterization of the limitations of an Emergency Alert System (EAS) using text messages as a security incident response mechanism. We show emergency alert systems built on text messaging not only can meet the 10 minute delivery requirement mandated by the WARN Act, but also potentially cause other voice and SMS traffic to be blocked at rates upward of 80 percent. We then show that our results are representative of reality by comparing them to a number of documented but not previously understood failures. Finally, we analyze a targeted messaging mechanism as a means of efficiently using currently deployed infrastructure and third-party EAS. In so doing, we demonstrate that this increasingly deployed security infrastructure does not achieve its stated requirements for large populations. 2012
 26 Converge Cast On the Capacity and Delay Tradeoffs In this paper, we define an ad hoc network where multiple sources transmit packets to one destination as Converge-Cast network. We will study the capacity delay tradeoffs assuming that n wireless nodes are deployed in a unit square. For each session (the session is a dataflow from k different source nodes to 1 destination node), k nodes are randomly selected as active sources and each transmits one packet to a particular destination node, which is also randomly selected. We first consider the stationary case, where capacity is mainly discussed and delay is entirely dependent on the average number of hops. We find that the per-node capacity is Θ (1/√(n log n)) (given nonnegative functions f(n) and g(n): f(n) = O(g(n)) means there exist positive constants c and m such that f(n) ≤ cg(n) for all n ≥ m; f(n)= Ω (g(n)) means there exist positive constants c and m such that f(n) ≥ cg(n) for all n ≥ m; f(n) = Θ (g(n)) means that both f(n) = Ω (g(n)) and f(n) = O(g(n)) hold), which is the same as that of unicast, presented in (Gupta and Kumar, 2000). Then, node mobility is introduced to increase network capacity, for which our study is performed in two steps. The first step is to establish the delay in single-session transmission. We find that the delay is Θ (n log k) under 1-hop strategy, and Θ (n log k/m) under 2-hop redundant strategy, where m denotes the number of replicas for each packet. The second step is to find delay and capacity in multisession transmission. We reveal that the per-node capacity and delay for 2-hop nonredundancy strategy are Θ (1) and Θ (n log k), respectively. The optimal delay is Θ (√(n log k)+k) with redundancy, corresponding to a capacity of Θ (√((1/n log k) + (k/n log k)). Therefore, we obtain that the capacity delay tradeoff satisfies delay/rate ≥ Θ (n log k) for both strategies. 2012
 27 Cooperative Download in Vehicular Environments We consider a complex (i.e., nonlinear) road scenario where users aboard vehicles equipped with communication interfaces are interested in downloading large files from road-side Access Points (APs). We investigate the possibility of exploiting opportunistic encounters among mobile nodes so to augment the transfer rate experienced by vehicular downloaders. To that end, we devise solutions for the selection of carriers and data chunks at the APs, and evaluate them in real-world road topologies, under different AP deployment strategies. Through extensive simulations, we show that carry&forward transfers can significantly increase the download rate of vehicular users in urban/suburban environments, and that such a result holds throughout diverse mobility scenarios, AP placements and network loads 2012
 28 Detection of Selfish Manipulation of Carrier Sensing in 802.11 Networks Recently, tuning the clear channel assessment (CCA) threshold in conjunction with power control has been considered for improving the performance of WLANs. However, we show that, CCA tuning can be exploited by selfish nodes to obtain an unfair share of the available bandwidth. Specifically, a selfish entity can manipulate the CCA threshold to ignore ongoing transmissions; this increases the probability of accessing the medium and provides the entity a higher, unfair share of the bandwidth. We experiment on our 802.11 testbed to characterize the effects of CCA tuning on both isolated links and in 802.11 WLAN configurations. We focus on AP-client(s) configurations, proposing a novel approach to detect this misbehavior. A misbehaving client is unlikely to recognize low power receptions as legitimate packets; by intelligently sending low power probe messages, an AP can efficiently detect a misbehaving node. Our key contributions are: 1) We are the first to quantify the impact of selfish CCA tuning via extensive experimentation on various 802.11 configurations. 2) We propose a lightweight scheme for detecting selfish nodes that inappropriately increase their CCAs. 3) We extensively evaluate our system on our testbed; its accuracy is 95 percent while the false positive rate is less than 5 percent.S 2012
 29 Distributed Throughput Maximization in Wireless Networks via Random Power Allocation We consider throughput-optimal power allocation in multi-hop wireless networks. The study of this problem has been limited due to the non-convexity of the underlying optimization problems, that prohibits an efficient solution even in a centralized setting. We take a randomization approach to deal with this difficulty. To this end, we generalize the randomization framework originally proposed for input queued switches to an SINR rate-based interference model. Further, we develop distributed power allocation and comparison algorithms that satisfy these conditions, thereby achieving (nearly) 100% throughput. We illustrate the performance of our proposed power allocation solution through numerical investigation and present several extensions for the considered problem. 2012
 30 Efficient Rendezvous Algorithms for Mobility-Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks Recent research shows that significant energy saving can be achieved in mobility-enabled wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that visit sensor nodes and collect data from them via short-range communications. However, a major performance bottleneck of such WSNs is the significantly increased latency in data collection due to the low movement speed of mobile base stations. To address this issue, we propose a rendezvous-based data collection approach in which a subset of nodes serve as rendezvous points that buffer and aggregate data originated from sources and transfer to the base station when it arrives. This approach combines the advantages of controlled mobility and in-network data caching and can achieve a desirable balance between network energy saving and data collection delay. We propose efficient rendezvous design algorithms with provable performance bounds for mobile base stations with variable and fixed tracks, respectively. The effectiveness of our approach is validated through both theoretical analysis and extensive simulations. 2012
 31 Efficient Virtual Backbone Construction with Routing Cost Constraint in Wireless Networks Using Directional Antennas Directional antennas can divide the transmission range into several sectors. Thus, through switching off sectors in unnecessary directions in wireless networks, we can save bandwidth and energy consumption. In this paper, we will study a directional virtual backbone (VB) in the network where directional antennas are used. When constructing a VB, we will take routing and broadcasting into account since they are two common operations in wireless networks. Hence, we will study a VB with guaranteed routing costs, named α Minimum rOuting Cost Directional VB (α-MOC-DVB). Besides the properties of regular VBs, α-MOC-DVB also has a special constraint – for any pair of nodes, there exists at least one path all intermediate directions on which must belong to α-MOC-DVB and the number of intermediate directions on the path is smaller than α times that on the shortest path. We prove that construction of a minimum α-MOC-DVB is an NP-hard problem in a general directed graph. A heuristic algorithm is proposed and theoretical analysis is also discussed in the paper. Extensive simulations demonstrate that our α-MOC-DVB is much more efficient in the sense of VB size and routing costs compared to other VBs. 2012
 32 Energy-Efficient Strategies for Cooperative Multichannel MAC Protocols Distributed Information SHaring (DISH) is a new cooperative approach to designing multichannel MAC protocols. It aids nodes in their decision making processes by compensating for their missing information via information sharing through neighboring nodes. This approach was recently shown to significantly boost the throughput of multichannel MAC protocols. However, a critical issue for ad hoc communication devices, viz. energy efficiency, has yet to be addressed. In this paper, we address this issue by developing simple solutions that reduce the energy consumption without compromising the throughput performance and meanwhile maximize cost efficiency. We propose two energy-efficient strategies: in-situ energy conscious DISH, which uses existing nodes only, and altruistic DISH, which requires additional nodes called altruists. We compare five protocols with respect to these strategies and identify altruistic DISH to be the right choice in general: it 1) conserves 40-80 percent of energy, 2) maintains the throughput advantage, and 3) more than doubles the cost efficiency compared to protocols without this strategy. On the other hand, our study also shows that in-situ energy conscious DISH is suitable only in certain limited scenarios. 2012
 33 Estimating Parameters of Multiple Heterogeneous Target Objects Using Composite Sensor Nodes We propose a method for estimating parameters of multiple target objects by using networked binary sensors whose locations are unknown. These target objects may have different parameters, such as size and perimeter length. Each sensors, which is incapable of monitoring the target object’s parameters, sends only binary data describing whether or not it detects target objects coming into, moving around, or leaving the sensing area at every moment. We previously developed a parameter estimation method for a single target object. However, a straight-forward extension of this method is not applicable for estimating multiple heterogeneous target objects. This is because a networked binary sensor at an unknown location cannot provide information that distinguishes individual target objects, but it can provide information on the total perimeter length and size of multiple target objects. Therefore, we propose composite sensor nodes with multiple sensors in a predetermined layout for obtaining additional information for estimating the parameter of each target object. As an example of a composite sensor node, we consider a two-sensor composite sensor node, which consists of two sensors, one at each of the two end points of a line segment of known length. For the two-sensor composite sensor node, measures are derived such as the two sensors detecting target objects. These derived measures are the basis for identifying the shape of each target object among a given set of categories (for example, disks and rectangles) and estimating parameters such as the radius and lengths of two sides of each target object. Numerical examples demonstrate that networked composite sensor nodes consisting of two binary sensors enable us to estimate the parameters of target objects. 2012
 34 Fast Capture—Recapture Approach for Mitigating the Problem of Missing RFID Tags The technology of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) enables many applications that rely on passive, battery-less wireless devices. If a RFID reader needs to gather the ID from multiple tags in its range, then it needs to run an anticollision protocol. Due to errors on the wireless link, a single reader session, which contains one full execution of the anticollision protocol, may not be sufficient to retrieve the ID of all tags. This problem can be mitigated by running multiple, redundant reader sessions and use the statistical relationship between these sessions. On the other hand, each session is time consuming and therefore the number of sessions should be kept minimal. We optimize the process of running multiple reader sessions, by allowing only some of the tags already discovered to reply in subsequent reader sessions. The estimation procedure is integrated with an actual tree-based anticollision protocol, and numerical results show that the reliable tag resolution algorithm attain high speed of protocol execution, while not sacrificing the reliability of the estimators used to assess the probability of missing tags. 2012
 35 Fast Data Collection in Tree-Based Wireless Sensor Networks We investigate the following fundamental question-how fast can information be collected from a wireless sensor network organized as tree? To address this, we explore and evaluate a number of different techniques using realistic simulation models under the many-to-one communication paradigm known as convergecast. We first consider time scheduling on a single frequency channel with the aim of minimizing the number of time slots required (schedule length) to complete a convergecast. Next, we combine scheduling with transmission power control to mitigate the effects of interference, and show that while power control helps in reducing the schedule length under a single frequency, scheduling transmissions using multiple frequencies is more efficient. We give lower bounds on the schedule length when interference is completely eliminated, and propose algorithms that achieve these bounds. We also evaluate the performance of various channel assignment methods and find empirically that for moderate size networks of about 100 nodes, the use of multifrequency scheduling can suffice to eliminate most of the interference. Then, the data collection rate no longer remains limited by interference but by the topology of the routing tree. To this end, we construct degree-constrained spanning trees and capacitated minimal spanning trees, and show significant improvement in scheduling performance over different deployment densities. Lastly, we evaluate the impact of different interference and channel models on the schedule length. 2012
 36 Fault Localization Using Passive End-to-End Measurements and Sequential Testing for Wireless Sensor Networks Faulty components in a network need to be localized and repaired to sustain the health of the network. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that carefully combines active and passive measurements to localize faults in wireless sensor networks. More specifically, we formulate a problem of optimal sequential testing guided by end-to-end data. This problem determines an optimal testing sequence of network components based on end-to-end data in sensor networks to minimize expected testing cost. We prove that this problem is NP-hard, and propose a recursive approach to solve it. This approach leads to a polynomial-time optimal algorithm for line topologies while requiring exponential running time for general topologies. We further develop two polynomial-time heuristic schemes that are applicable to general topologies. Extensive simulation shows that our heuristic schemes only require testing a very small set of network components to localize and repair all faults in the network. Our approach is superior to using active and passive measurements in isolation. It also outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches that localize and repair all faults in a network. 2012
 37 FESCIM Fair, Efficient, and Secure Cooperation Incentive Mechanism for Multihop Cellular Networks In multihop cellular networks, the mobile nodes usually relay others’ packets for enhancing the network performance and deployment. However, selfish nodes usually do not cooperate but make use of the cooperative nodes to relay their packets, which has a negative effect on the network fairness and performance. In this paper, we propose a fair and efficient incentive mechanism to stimulate the node cooperation. Our mechanism applies a fair charging policy by charging the source and destination nodes when both of them benefit from the communication. To implement this charging policy efficiently, hashing operations are used in the ACK packets to reduce the number of public-key-cryptography operations. Moreover, reducing the overhead of the payment checks is essential for the efficient implementation of the incentive mechanism due to the large number of payment transactions. Instead of generating a check per message, a small-size check can be generated per route, and a check submission scheme is proposed to reduce the number of submitted checks and protect against collusion attacks. Extensive analysis and simulations demonstrate that our mechanism can secure the payment and significantly reduce the checks’ overhead, and the fair charging policy can be implemented almost computationally free by using hashing operations. 2012
 38 Geometry and Motion-Based Positioning Algorithms for Mobile Tracking in NLOS Environments This paper presents positioning algorithms for cellular network-based vehicle tracking in severe non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation scenarios. The aim of the algorithms is to enhance positional accuracy of network-based positioning systems when the GPS receiver does not perform well due to the complex propagation environment. A one-step position estimation method and another two-step method are proposed and developed. Constrained optimization is utilized to minimize the cost function which takes account of the NLOS error so that the NLOS effect is significantly reduced. Vehicle velocity and heading direction measurements are exploited in the algorithm development, which may be obtained using a speedometer and a heading sensor, respectively. The developed algorithms are practical so that they are suitable for implementation in practice for vehicle applications. It is observed through simulation that in severe NLOS propagation scenarios, the proposed positioning methods outperform the existing cellular network-based positioning algorithms significantly. Further, when the distance measurement error is modeled as the sum of an exponential bias variable and a Gaussian noise variable, the exact expressions of the CRLB are derived to benchmark the performance of the positioning algorithms. 2012
 39 Handling Selfishness in Replica Allocation over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network In a mobile ad hoc network, the mobility and resource constraints of mobile nodes may lead to network partitioning or performance degradation. Several data replication techniques have been proposed to minimize performance degradation. Most of them assume that all mobile nodes collaborate fully in terms of sharing their memory space. In reality, however, some nodes may selfishly decide only to cooperate partially, or not at all, with other nodes. These selfish nodes could then reduce the overall data accessibility in the network. In this paper, we examine the impact of selfish nodes in a mobile ad hoc network from the perspective of replica allocation. We term this selfish replica allocation. In particular, we develop a selfish node detection algorithm that considers partial selfishness and novel replica allocation techniques to properly cope with selfish replica allocation. The conducted simulations demonstrate the proposed approach outperforms traditional cooperative replica allocation techniques in terms of data accessibility, communication cost, and average query delay. 2012
 40 Heuristic Burst Construction Algorithm for Improving Downlink Capacity in IEEE 802.16 OFDMA Systems IEEE 802.16 OFDMA systems have gained much attention for their ability to support high transmission rates and broadband access services. For multiuser environments, IEEE 802.16 OFDMA systems require a resource allocation algorithm to use the limited downlink resource efficiently. The IEEE 802.16 standard defines that resource allocation should be performed with a rectangle region of slots, called a burst. However, the standard does not specify how to construct bursts. In this paper, we propose a heuristic burst construction algorithm, called HuB, to improve the downlink capacity in IEEE 802.16 OFDMA systems. To increase the downlink capacity, during burst constructions HuB reduces resource wastage by considering padded slots and unused slots and reduces resource usage by considering the power boosting possibility. For simple burst constructions, HuB makes a HuB-tree, in which a node represents an available downlink resource and edges of a node represent a burst rectangle region. Thus, making child nodes of a parent node is the same as constructing a burst in a given downlink resource. We analyzed the proposed algorithm and performed simulations to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with existing algorithms. Our simulation study results show that HuB shows improved downlink capacity over existing algorithms. 2012
 41 Hop-by-Hop Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Bandwidth Guarantees Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) has become an important edge network to provide Internet access to remote areas and wireless connections in a metropolitan scale. In this paper, we study the problem of identifying the maximum available bandwidth path, a fundamental issue in supporting quality-of-service in WMNs. Due to interference among links, bandwidth, a well-known bottleneck metric in wired networks, is neither concave nor additive in wireless networks. We propose a new path weight which captures the available path bandwidth information. We formally prove that our hop-by-hop routing protocol based on the new path weight satisfies the consistency and loop-freeness requirements. The consistency property guarantees that each node makes a proper packet forwarding decision, so that a data packet does traverse over the intended path. Our extensive simulation experiments also show that our proposed path weight outperforms existing path metrics in identifying high-throughput paths. 2012
 42 Jointly Optimal Source-Flow, Transmit-Power, and Sending-Rate Control for Maximum- Throughput Delivery of VBR Traffic over Faded Links Emerging media overlay networks for wireless applications aim at delivering Variable Bit Rate (VBR) encoded media contents to nomadic end users by exploiting the (fading-impaired and time-varying) access capacity offered by the “last-hop” wireless channel. In this application scenario, a still open question concerns the closed-form design of control policies that maximize the average throughput sent over the wireless last hop, under constraints on the maximum connection bandwidth available at the Application (APP) layer, the queue capacity available at the Data Link (DL) layer, and the average and peak energies sustained by the Physical (PHY) layer. The approach we follow relies on the maximization on a per-slot basis of the throughput averaged over the fading statistic and conditioned on the queue state, without resorting to cumbersome iterative algorithms. The resulting optimal controller operates in a cross-layer fashion that involves the APP, DL, and PHY layers of the underlying protocol stack. Finally, we develop the operating conditions allowing the proposed controller also to maximize the unconditional average throughput (i.e., the throughput averaged over both queue and channel-state statistics). The carried out numerical tests give insight into the connection bandwidth-versus-queue delay trade-off achieved by the optimal controller. 2012
 43 Moderated Group Authoring System for Campus-Wide Workgroups This paper describes the design and implementation of a file system-based distributed authoring system for campus-wide workgroups. We focus on documents for which changes by different group members are harder to automatically reconcile into a single version. Prior approaches relied on using group-aware editors. Others built collaborative middleware that allowed the group members to use traditional authoring tools. These approaches relied on an ability to automatically detect conflicting updates. They also operated on specific document types. Instead, our system relies on users to moderate and reconcile updates by other group members. Our file system-based approach also allows group members to modify any document type. We maintain one updateable copy of the shared content on each group member’s node. We also hoard read-only copies of each of these updateable copies in any interested group member’s node. All these copies are propagated to other group members at a rate that is solely dictated by the wireless user availability. The various copies are reconciled using the moderation operation; each group member manually incorporates updates from all the other group members into their own copy. The various document versions eventually converge into a single version through successive moderation operations. The system assists with this convergence process by using the made-with knowledge of all causal file system reads of contents from other replicas. An analysis using a long-term wireless user availability traces from a university shows the strength of our asynchronous and distributed update propagation mechanism. Our user space file system prototype exhibits acceptable file system performance. A subjective evaluation showed that the moderation operation was intuitive for students. 2012
 44 Network Connectivity with a Family of Group Mobility Models We investigate the communication range of the nodes necessary for network connectivity, which we call bidirectional connectivity, in a simple setting. Unlike in most of existing studies, however, the locations or mobilities of the nodes may be correlated through group mobility: nodes are broken into groups, with each group comprising the same number of nodes, and lie on a unit circle. The locations of the nodes in the same group are not mutually independent, but are instead conditionally independent given the location of the group. We examine the distribution of the smallest communication range needed for bidirectional connectivity, called the critical transmission range (CTR), when both the number of groups and the number of nodes in a group are large. We first demonstrate that the CTR exhibits a parametric sensitivity with respect to the space each group occupies on the unit circle. Then, we offer an explanation for the observed sensitivity by identifying what is known as a very strong threshold and asymptotic bounds for CTR. 2012
 45 OMAN A Mobile Ad Hoc Network Design System We present a software library that aids in the design of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The OMAN design engine works by taking a specification of network requirements and objectives, and allocates resources which satisfy the input constraints and maximize the communication performance objective. The tool is used to explore networking design options and challenges, including: power control, adaptive modulation, flow control, scheduling, mobility, uncertainty in channel models, and cross-layer design. The unaddressed niche which OMAN seeks to fill is the general framework for optimization of any network resource, under arbitrary constraints, and with any selection of multiple objectives. While simulation is an important part of measuring the effectiveness of implemented optimization techniques, the novelty and focus of OMAN is on proposing novel network design algorithms, aggregating existing approaches, and providing a general framework for a network designer to test out new proposed resource allocation methods. In this paper, we present a high-level view of the OMAN architecture, review specific mathematical models used in the network representation, and show how OMAN is used to evaluate tradeoffs in MANET design. Specifically, we cover three case studies of optimization. The first case is robust power control under uncertain channel information for a single physical layer snapshot. The second case is scheduling with the availability of directional radiation patterns. The third case is optimizing topology through movement planning of relay nodes. 2012
 46 Robust Topology Engineering in Multiradio Multichannel Wireless Networks Topology engineering concerns with the problem of automatic determination of physical layer parameters to form a network with desired properties. In this paper, we investigate the joint power control, channel assignment, and radio interface selection for robust provisioning of link bandwidth in infrastructure multiradio multichannel wireless networks in presence of channel variability and external interference. To characterize the logical relationship between spatial contention constraints and transmit power, we formulate the joint power control and radio-channel assignment as a generalized disjunctive programming problem. The generalized Benders decomposition technique is applied for decomposing the radio-channel assignment (combinatorial constraints) and network resource allocation (continuous constraints) so that the problem can be solved efficiently. The proposed algorithm is guaranteed to converge to the optimal solution within a finite number of iterations. We have evaluated our scheme using traces collected from two wireless testbeds and simulation studies in Qualnet. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is superior to existing schemes in providing larger interference margin, and reducing outage and packet loss probabilities. 2012
 47 SenseLess A Database-Driven White Spaces Network The 2010 FCC ruling on white spaces proposes relying on a database of incumbents as the primary means of determining white space availability at any white space device (WSD). While the ruling provides broad guidelines for the database, the specifics of its design, features, implementation, and use are yet to be determined. Furthermore, architecting a network where all WSDs rely on the database raises several systems and networking challenges that have remained unexplored. Also, the ruling treats the database only as a storehouse for incumbents. We believe that the mandated use of the database has an additional opportunity: a means to dynamically manage the RF spectrum. Motivated by this opportunity, in this paper, we present SenseLess, a database-driven white spaces network. As suggested by its very name, in SenseLess, WSDs rely on a database service to determine white spaces availability as opposed to spectrum sensing. The service, using a combination of an up-to-date database of incumbents, sophisticated signal propagation modeling, and an efficient content dissemination mechanism to ensure efficient, scalable, and safe white space network operation. We build, deploy, and evaluate SenseLess and compare our results to ground truth spectrum measurements. We present the unique system design considerations that arise due to operating over the white spaces. We also evaluate its efficiency and scalability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that identifies and examines the systems and networking challenges that arise from operating a white space network, which is solely dependent on a channel occupancy database. 2012
Smooth Trade-Offs between Throughput and Delay in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Throughput capacity in mobile ad hoc networks has been studied extensively under many different mobility models. However, most previous research assumes global mobility, and the results show that a constant per-node throughput can be achieved at the cost of very high delay. Thus, we are having a very big gap here, i.e., either low throughput and low delay in static networks or high throughput and high delay in mobile networks. In this paper, employing a practical restricted random mobility model, we try to fill this gap. Specifically, we assume that a network of unit area with n nodes is evenly divided into cells with an area of n -2α, each of which is further evenly divided into squares with an area of n-2β(0≤ α ≤ β ≤1/2). All nodes can only move inside the cell which they are initially distributed in, and at the beginning of each time slot, every node moves from its current square to a uniformly chosen point in a uniformly chosen adjacent square. By proposing a new multihop relay scheme, we present smooth trade-offs between throughput and delay by controlling nodes’ mobility. We also consider a network of area nγ (0 ≤ γ ≤ 1) and find that network size does not affect the results obtained before. 2012
 48 Spectrum-Aware Mobility Management in Cognitive Radio Cellular Networks Cognitive radio (CR) networks have been proposed as a solution to both spectrum inefficiency and spectrum scarcity problems. However, they face several challenges based on the fluctuating nature of the available spectrum, making it more difficult to support seamless communications, especially in CR cellular networks. In this paper, a spectrum-aware mobility management scheme is proposed for CR cellular networks. First, a novel network architecture is introduced to mitigate heterogeneous spectrum availability. Based on this architecture, a unified mobility management framework is developed to support diverse mobility events in CR networks, which consists of spectrum mobility management, user mobility management, and intercell resource allocation. The spectrum mobility management scheme determines a target cell and spectrum band for CR users adaptively dependent on time-varying spectrum opportunities, leading to increase in cell capacity. In the user mobility management scheme, a mobile user selects a proper handoff mechanism so as to minimize a switching latency at the cell boundary by considering spatially heterogeneous spectrum availability. Intercell resource allocation helps to improve the performance of both mobility management schemes by efficiently sharing spectrum resources with multiple cells. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance than conventional handoff schemes in terms of both cell capacity as well as mobility support in communications. 2012
 49 Stateless Multicast Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Multicast routing protocols typically rely on the a priori creation of a multicast tree (or mesh), which requires the individual nodes to maintain state information. In dynamic networks with bursty traffic, where long periods of silence are expected between the bursts of data, this multicast state maintenance adds a large amount of communication, processing, and memory overhead for no benefit to the application. Thus, we have developed a stateless receiver-based multicast (RBMulticast) protocol that simply uses a list of the multicast members’ (e.g., sinks’) addresses, embedded in packet headers, to enable receivers to decide the best way to forward the multicast traffic. This protocol, called Receiver-Based Multicast, exploits the knowledge of the geographic locations of the nodes to remove the need for costly state maintenance (e.g., tree/mesh/neighbor table maintenance), making it ideally suited for multicasting in dynamic networks. RBMulticast was implemented in the OPNET simulator and tested using a sensor network implementation. Both simulation and experimental results confirm that RBMulticast provides high success rates and low delay without the burden of state maintenance.

 

         TECHNOLOGY  : JAVA          DOMAIN              : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING

 

S.NO TITLES DESCRIPTION YEAR
Image Super-Resolution With Sparse Neighbor Embedding In this paper, we propose a sparse neighbor selection scheme for SR reconstruction.We first predetermine a larger number of neighbors as potential candidates and develop an extended Robust-SL0 algorithm tosimultaneously find the neighbors and to solve the reconstruction weights. Recognizing that the -nearest neighbor ( -NN) for reconstruction should have similar local geometric structures basedon clustering, we employ a local statistical feature, namely histograms of oriented gradients (HoG) of low-resolution (LR) image patches, to perform such clustering. 2012
Scalable Coding of Encrypted Images This paper proposes a novel scheme of scalable coding for encrypted images. In the encryption phase, the original pixel values are masked by a modulo-256 addition with pseudorandom numbers that are derived from a secret key. Then, the data of quantized sub image and coefficients are regarded as a set of bit streams. 2012
PDE-Based Enhancement of Color Images in RGB Space The proposed model is based on using the single vectors of the gradient magnitude and the second derivatives as a manner to relate different color components of the image. This model can be viewed as a generalization of the Bettahar–Stambouli filter to multivalued images. The proposed algorithm is more efficient than the mentioned filter and some previous works at color images denoising and deblurring without creating false colors 2012
Abrupt Motion Tracking Via Intensively Adaptive Markov-Chain Monte Carlo Sampling The robust tracking of abrupt motion is a challenging task in computer vision due to its large motion uncertainty. While various particle filters and conventional Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have been proposed for visual tracking, these methods often suffer from the well-known local-trap problem or from poor convergence rate. In this paper, we propose a novel sampling-based tracking scheme for the abrupt motion problem in the Bayesian filtering framework. To effectively handle the local-trap problem, we first introduce the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) sampling method into the Bayesian filter tracking framework, in which the filtering distribution is adaptively estimated as the sampling proceeds, and thus, a good approximation to the target distribution is achieved. In addition, we propose a new MCMC sampler with intensive adaptation to further improve the sampling efficiency, which combines a density-grid-based predictive model with the SAMC sampling, to give a proposal adaptation scheme. The proposed method is effective and computationally efficient in addressing the abrupt motion problem. We compare our approach with several alternative tracking algorithms, and extensive experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed method in dealing with various types of abrupt motions. 2012
Vehicle Detection in Aerial Surveillance Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks We present an automatic vehicle detection system for aerial surveillance in this paper. In this system, we escape from the stereotype and existing frameworks of vehicle detection in aerial surveillance, which are either region based or sliding window based. We design a pixelwise classification method for vehicle detection. The novelty lies in the fact that, in spite of performing pixelwise classification, relations among neighboring pixels in a region are preserved in the feature extraction process.We consider features including vehicle colors and local features. For vehicle color extraction, we utilize a color transform to separate vehicle colors and nonvehicle colors effectively. For edge detection, we apply moment preserving to adjust the thresholds of the Canny edge detector automatically, which increases the adaptability and the accuracy for detection in various aerial images. Afterward, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is constructed for the classification purpose. We convert regional local features into quantitative observations that can be referenced when applying pixelwise classification via DBN. Experiments were conducted on a wide variety of aerial videos. The results demonstrate flexibility and good generalization abilities of the proposed method on a challenging data set with aerial surveillance images taken at different heights and under different camera angles. 2012
A Secret-Sharing-Based Method for Authentication of Grayscale Document Images via the Use of the PNG Image With a Data Repair Capability A new blind authentication method based on the secret sharing technique with a data repair capability for grayscale document images via the use of the Portable Network Graphics (PNG) image is proposed. An authentication signal is generated for each block of a grayscale document image, which, together with the binarized block content, is transformed into several shares using the Shamir secret sharing scheme. The involved parameters are carefully chosen so that as many shares as possible are generated and embedded into an alpha channel plane. The alpha channel plane is then combined with the original grayscale image to form a PNG image. During the embedding process, the computed share values are mapped into a range of alpha channel values near their maximum value of 255 to yield a transparent stego-image with a disguise effect. In the process of image authentication, an image block is marked as tampered if the authentication signal computed from the current block content does not match that extracted from the shares embedded in the alpha channel plane. Data repairing is then applied to each tampered block by a reverse Shamir scheme after collecting two shares from unmarked blocks. Measures for protecting the security of the data hidden in the alpha channel are also proposed. Good experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method for real applications. 2012
  1. 7.
Learn to Personalized Image Search from the Photo Sharing Websites – projects 2012 Increasingly developed social sharing websites, like Flickr and Youtube, allow users to create, share, annotate and comment medias. The large-scale user-generated meta-data not only facilitate users in sharing and organizing multimedia content,but provide useful information to improve media retrieval and management. Personalized search serves as one of such examples where the web search experience is improved by generating the returned list according to the modified user search intents. In this paper, we exploit the social annotations and propose a novel framework simultaneously considering the user and query relevance to learn to personalized image search. The basic premise is to embed the user preference and query-related search intent into user-specific topic spaces. Since the users’ original annotation is too sparse for topic modeling, we need to enrich users’ annotation pool before user-specific topic spaces construction. The proposed framework contains two components:
A Discriminative Model of Motion and Cross Ratio for View-Invariant Action Recognition Action recognition is very important for many applications such as video surveillance, human-computer interaction, and so on; view-invariant action recognition is hot and difficult as well in this field. In this paper, a new discriminative model is proposed for video-based view-invariant action recognition. In the discriminative model, motion pattern and view invariants are perfectly fused together to make a better combination of invariance and distinctiveness. We address a series of issues, including interest point detection in image sequence, motion feature extraction and description, and view-invariant calculation. First, motion detection is used to extract motion information from videos, which is much more efficient than traditional background modeling and tracking-based methods. Second, as for feature representation, we exact variety of statistical information from motion and view-invariant feature based on cross ratio. Last, in the action modeling, we apply a discriminative probabilistic model-hidden conditional random field to model motion patterns and view invariants, by which we could fuse the statistics of motion and projective invariability of cross ratio in one framework. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can improve the ability to distinguish different categories of actions with high robustness to view change in real circumstances. 2012
A General Fast Registration Framework by Learning Deformation–Appearance Correlation In this paper, we propose a general framework for performance improvement of the current state-of-the-art registration algorithms in terms of both accuracy and computation time. The key concept involves rapid prediction of a deformation field for registration initialization, which is achieved by a statistical correlation model learned between image appearances and deformation fields. This allows us to immediately bring a template image as close as possible to a subject image that we need to register. The task of the registration algorithm is hence reduced to estimating small deformation between the subject image and the initially warped template image, i.e., the intermediate template (IT). Specifically, to obtain a good subject-specific initial deformation, support vector regression is utilized to determine the correlation between image appearances and their respective deformation fields. When registering a new subject onto the template, an initial deformation field is first predicted based on the subject’s image appearance for generating an IT. With the IT, only the residual deformation needs to be estimated, presenting much less challenge to the existing registration algorithms. Our learning-based framework affords two important advantages: 1) by requiring only the estimation of the residual deformation between the IT and the subject image, the computation time can be greatly reduced; 2) by leveraging good deformation initialization, local minima giving suboptimal solution could be avoided. Our framework has been extensively evaluated using medical images from different sources, and the results indicate that, on top of accuracy improvement, significant registration speedup can be achieved, as compared with the case where no prediction of initial deformation is performed. 2012
A Geometric Construction of Multivariate Sinc Functions We present a geometric framework for explicit derivation of multivariate sampling functions (sinc) on multidimensional lattices. The approach leads to a generalization of the link between sinc functions and the Lagrange interpolation in the multivariate setting. Our geometric approach also provides a frequency partition of the spectrum that leads to a nonseparable extension of the 1-D Shannon (sinc) wavelets to the multivariate setting. Moreover, we propose a generalization of the Lanczos window function that provides a practical and unbiased approach for signal reconstruction on sampling lattices. While this framework is general for lattices of any dimension, we specifically characterize all 2-D and 3-D lattices and show the detailed derivations for 2-D hexagonal body-centered cubic (BCC) and face-centered cubic (FCC) lattices. Both visual and numerical comparisons validate the theoretical expectations about superiority of the BCC and FCC lattices over the commonly used Cartesian lattice. 2012
A Novel Algorithm for View and Illumination Invariant Image Matching The challenges in local-feature-based image matching are variations of view and illumination. Many methods have been recently proposed to address these problems by using invariant feature detectors and distinctive descriptors. However, the matching performance is still unstable and inaccurate, particularly when large variation in view or illumination occurs. In this paper, we propose a view and illumination invariant image-matching method. We iteratively estimate the relationship of the relative view and illumination of the images, transform the view of one image to the other, and normalize their illumination for accurate matching. Our method does not aim to increase the invariance of the detector but to improve the accuracy, stability, and reliability of the matching results. The performance of matching is significantly improved and is not affected by the changes of view and illumination in a valid range. The proposed method would fail when the initial view and illumination method fails, which gives us a new sight to evaluate the traditional detectors. We propose two novel indicators for detector evaluation, namely, valid angle and valid illumination, which reflect the maximum allowable change in view and illumination, respectively. Extensive experimental results show that our method improves the traditional detector significantly, even in large variations, and the two indicators are much more distinctive. 2012
A Spectral and Spatial Measure of Local Perceived Sharpness in Natural Images This paper presents an algorithm designed to measure the local perceived sharpness in an image. Our method utilizes both spectral and spatial properties of the image: For each block, we measure the slope of the magnitude spectrum and the total spatial variation. These measures are then adjusted to account for visual perception, and then, the adjusted measures are combined via a weighted geometric mean. The resulting measure, i.e., S3 (spectral and spatial sharpness), yields a perceived sharpness map in which greater values denote perceptually sharper regions. This map can be collapsed into a single index, which quantifies the overall perceived sharpness of the whole image. We demonstrate the utility of the S3 measure for within-image and across-image sharpness prediction, no-reference image quality assessment of blurred images, and monotonic estimation of the standard deviation of the impulse response used in Gaussian blurring. We further evaluate the accuracy of S3 in local sharpness estimation by comparing S3 maps to sharpness maps generated by human subjects. We show that S3 can generate sharpness maps, which are highly correlated with the human-subject maps. 2012
A Unified Feature and Instance Selection Framework Using Optimum Experimental Design The goal of feature selection is to identify the most informative features for compact representation, whereas the goal of active learning is to select the most informative instances for prediction. Previous studies separately address these two problems, despite of the fact that selecting features and instances are dual operations over a data matrix. In this paper, we consider the novel problem of simultaneously selecting the most informative features and instances and develop a solution from the perspective of optimum experimental design. That is, by using the selected features as the new representation and the selected instances as training data, the variance of the parameter estimate of a learning function can be minimized. Specifically, we propose a novel approach, which is called Unified criterion for Feature and Instance selection (UFI), to simultaneously identify the most informative features and instances that minimize the trace of the parameter covariance matrix. A greedy algorithm is introduced to efficiently solve the optimization problem. Experimental results on two benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. 2012
An Algorithm for the Contextual Adaption of SURF Octave Selection With Good Matching Performance Best Octaves Speeded-Up Robust Features is a feature extraction algorithm designed for real-time execution, although this is rarely achievable on low-power hardware such as that in mobile robots. One way to reduce the computation is to discard some of the scale-space octaves, and previous research has simply discarded the higher octaves. This paper shows that this approach is not always the most sensible and presents an algorithm for choosing which octaves to discard based on the properties of the imagery. Results obtained with this best octaves algorithm show that it is able to achieve a significant reduction in computation without compromising matching performance. 2012
An Efficient Camera Calibration Technique Offering Robustness and Accuracy Over a Wide Range of Lens Distortion In the field of machine vision, camera calibration refers to the experimental determination of a set of parameters that describe the image formation process for a given analytical model of the machine vision system. Researchers working with low-cost digital cameras and off-the-shelf lenses generally favor camera calibration techniques that do not rely on specialized optical equipment, modifications to the hardware, or an a priori knowledge of the vision system. Most of the commonly used calibration techniques are based on the observation of a single 3-D target or multiple planar (2-D) targets with a large number of control points. This paper presents a novel calibration technique that offers improved accuracy, robustness, and efficiency over a wide range of lens distortion. This technique operates by minimizing the error between the reconstructed image points and their experimentally determined counterparts in “distortion free” space. This facilitates the incorporation of the exact lens distortion model. In addition, expressing spatial orientation in terms of unit quaternions greatly enhances the proposed calibration solution by formulating a minimally redundant system of equations that is free of singularities. Extensive performance benchmarking consisting of both computer simulation and experiments confirmed higher accuracy in calibration regardless of the amount of lens distortion present in the optics of the camera. This paper also experimentally confirmed that a comprehensive lens distortion model including higher order radial and tangential distortion terms improves calibration accuracy. 2012
Bayesian Estimation for Optimized Structured Illumination Microscopy Structured illumination microscopy is a recent imaging technique that aims at going beyond the classical optical resolution by reconstructing high-resolution (HR) images from low-resolution (LR) images acquired through modulation of the transfer function of the microscope. The classical implementation has a number of drawbacks, such as requiring a large number of images to be acquired and parameters to be manually set in an ad-hoc manner that have, until now, hampered its wide dissemination. Here, we present a new framework based on a Bayesian inverse problem formulation approach that enables the computation of one HR image from a reduced number of LR images and has no specific constraints on the modulation. Moreover, it permits to automatically estimate the optimal reconstruction hyperparameters and to compute an uncertainty bound on the estimated values. We demonstrate through numerical evaluations on simulated data and examples on real microscopy data that our approach represents a decisive advance for a wider use of HR microscopy through structured illumination. 2012
Binarization of Low-Quality Barcode Images Captured by Mobile Phones Using Local Window of Adaptive Location and Size It is difficult to directly apply existing binarization approaches to the barcode images captured by mobile device due to their low quality. This paper proposes a novel scheme for the binarization of such images. The barcode and background regions are differentiated by the number of edge pixels in a search window. Unlike existing approaches that center the pixel to be binarized with a window of fixed size, we propose to shift the window center to the nearest edge pixel so that the balance of the number of object and background pixels can be achieved. The window size is adaptive either to the minimum distance to edges or minimum element width in the barcode. The threshold is calculated using the statistics in the window. Our proposed method has demonstrated its capability in handling the nonuniform illumination problem and the size variation of objects. Experimental results conducted on 350 images captured by five mobile phones achieve about 100% of recognition rate in good lighting conditions, and about 95% and 83% in bad lighting conditions. Comparisons made with nine existing binarization methods demonstrate the advancement of our proposed scheme 2012
B-Spline Explicit Active Surfaces An Efficient Framework for Real-Time 3-D Region-Based Segmentation A new formulation of active contours based on explicit functions has been recently suggested. This novel framework allows real-time 3-D segmentation since it reduces the dimensionality of the segmentation problem. In this paper, we propose a B-spline formulation of this approach, which further improves the computational efficiency of the algorithm. We also show that this framework allows evolving the active contour using local region-based terms, thereby overcoming the limitations of the original method while preserving computational speed. The feasibility of real-time 3-D segmentation is demonstrated using simulated and medical data such as liver computer tomography and cardiac ultrasound images. 2012
Change Detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar Images based on Image Fusion and Fuzzy Clustering This paper presents an unsupervised distribution-free change detection approach for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images based on an image fusion strategy and a novel fuzzy clustering algorithm. The image fusion technique is introduced to generate a difference image by using complementary information from a mean-ratio image and a log-ratio image. In order to restrain the background information and enhance the information of changed regions in the fused difference image, wavelet fusion rules based on an average operator and minimum local area energy are chosen to fuse the wavelet coefficients for a low-frequency band and a high-frequency band, respectively. A reformulated fuzzy local-information C-means clustering algorithm is proposed for classifying changed and unchanged regions in the fused difference image. It incorporates the information about spatial context in a novel fuzzy way for the purpose of enhancing the changed information and of reducing the effect of speckle noise. Experiments on real SAR images show that the image fusion strategy integrates the advantages of the log-ratio operator and the mean-ratio operator and gains a better performance. The change detection results obtained by the improved fuzzy clustering algorithm exhibited lower error than its preexistences. 2012
Color Constancy for Multiple Light Sources Color constancy algorithms are generally based on the simplifying assumption that the spectral distribution of a light source is uniform across scenes. However, in reality, this assumption is often violated due to the presence of multiple light sources. In this paper, we will address more realistic scenarios where the uniform light-source assumption is too restrictive. First, a methodology is proposed to extend existing algorithms by applying color constancy locally to image patches, rather than globally to the entire image. After local (patch-based) illuminant estimation, these estimates are combined into more robust estimations, and a local correction is applied based on a modified diagonal model. Quantitative and qualitative experiments on spectral and real images show that the proposed methodology reduces the influence of two light sources simultaneously present in one scene. If the chromatic difference between these two illuminants is more than 1° , the proposed framework outperforms algorithms based on the uniform light-source assumption (with error-reduction up to approximately 30%). Otherwise, when the chromatic difference is less than 1° and the scene can be considered to contain one (approximately) uniform light source, the performance of the proposed method framework is similar to global color constancy methods. 2012
Coupled Bias–Variance Tradeoff for Cross-Pose Face Recognition Subspace-based face representation can be looked as a regression problem. From this viewpoint, we first revisited the problem of recognizing faces across pose differences, which is a bottleneck in face recognition. Then, we propose a new approach for cross-pose face recognition using a regressor with a coupled bias-variance tradeoff. We found that striking a coupled balance between bias and variance in regression for different poses could improve the regressor-based cross-pose face representation, i.e., the regressor can be more stable against a pose difference. With the basic idea, ridge regression and lasso regression are explored. Experimental results on CMU PIE, the FERET, and the Multi-PIE face databases show that the proposed bias-variance tradeoff can achieve considerable reinforcement in recognition performance 2012
Depth From Motion and Optical Blur With an Unscented Kalman Filter Space-variantly blurred images of a scene contain valuable depth information. In this paper, our objective is to recover the 3-D structure of a scene from motion blur/optical defocus. In the proposed approach, the difference of blur between two observations is used as a cue for recovering depth, within a recursive state estimation framework. For motion blur, we use an unblurred-blurred image pair. Since the relationship between the observation and the scale factor of the point spread function associated with the depth at a point is nonlinear, we propose and develop a formulation of unscented Kalman filter for depth estimation. There are no restrictions on the shape of the blur kernel. Furthermore, within the same formulation, we address a special and challenging scenario of depth from defocus with translational jitter. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated on synthetic as well as real data, and its performance is also compared with contemporary techniques. 2012
Design of Almost Symmetric Orthogonal Wavelet Filter Bank Via Direct Optimization It is a well-known fact that (compact-support) dyadic wavelets [based on the two channel filter banks (FBs)] cannot be simultaneously orthogonal and symmetric. Although orthogonal wavelets have the energy preservation property, biorthogonal wavelets are preferred in image processing applications because of their symmetric property. In this paper, a novel method is presented for the design of almost symmetric orthogonal wavelet FB. Orthogonality is structurally imposed by using the unnormalized lattice structure, and this leads to an objective function, which is relatively simple to optimize. The designed filters have good frequency response, flat group delay, almost symmetric filter coefficients, and symmetric wavelet function 2012
Design of Interpolation Functions for Subpixel-Accuracy Stereo-Vision Systems Traditionally, subpixel interpolation in stereo-vision systems was designed for the block-matching algorithm. During the evaluation of different interpolation strategies, a strong correlation was observed between the type of the stereo algorithm and the subpixel accuracy of the different solutions. Subpixel interpolation should be adapted to each stereo algorithm to achieve maximum accuracy. In consequence, it is more important to propose methodologies for interpolation function generation than specific function shapes. We propose two such methodologies based on data generated by the stereo algorithms. The first proposal uses a histogram to model the environment and applies histogram equalization to an existing solution adapting it to the data. The second proposal employs synthetic images of a known environment and applies function fitting to the resulted data. The resulting function matches the algorithm and the data as best as possible. An extensive evaluation set is used to validate the findings. Both real and synthetic test cases were employed in different scenarios. The test results are consistent and show significant improvements compared with traditional solutions. 2012
Entropy-Functional-Based Online Adaptive Decision Fusion Framework With Application to Wildfire Detection in Video In this paper, an entropy-functional-based online adaptive decision fusion (EADF) framework is developed for image analysis and computer vision applications. In this framework, it is assumed that the compound algorithm consists of several subalgorithms, each of which yields its own decision as a real number centered around zero, representing the confidence level of that particular subalgorithm. Decision values are linearly combined with weights that are updated online according to an active fusion method based on performing entropic projections onto convex sets describing subalgorithms. It is assumed that there is an oracle, who is usually a human operator, providing feedback to the decision fusion method. A video-based wildfire detection system was developed to evaluate the performance of the decision fusion algorithm. In this case, image data arrive sequentially, and the oracle is the security guard of the forest lookout tower, verifying the decision of the combined algorithm. The simulation results are presented. 2012
Fast Semantic Diffusion for Large-Scale Context-Based Image and Video Annotation Exploring context information for visual recognition has recently received significant research attention. This paper proposes a novel and highly efficient approach, which is named semantic diffusion, to utilize semantic context for large-scale image and video annotation. Starting from the initial annotation of a large number of semantic concepts (categories), obtained by either machine learning or manual tagging, the proposed approach refines the results using a graph diffusion technique, which recovers the consistency and smoothness of the annotations over a semantic graph. Different from the existing graph-based learning methods that model relations among data samples, the semantic graph captures context by treating the concepts as nodes and the concept affinities as the weights of edges. In particular, our approach is capable of simultaneously improving annotation accuracy and adapting the concept affinities to new test data. The adaptation provides a means to handle domain change between training and test data, which often occurs in practice. Extensive experiments are conducted to improve concept annotation results using Flickr images and TV program videos. Results show consistent and significant performance gain (10 on both image and video data sets). Source codes of the proposed algorithms are available online. 2012
Gradient-Based Image Recovery Methods From Incomplete Fourier Measurements A major problem in imaging applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and synthetic aperture radar is the task of trying to reconstruct an image with the smallest possible set of Fourier samples, every single one of which has a potential time and/or power cost. The theory of compressive sensing (CS) points to ways of exploiting inherent sparsity in such images in order to achieve accurate recovery using sub-Nyquist sampling schemes. Traditional CS approaches to this problem consist of solving total-variation (TV) minimization programs with Fourier measurement constraints or other variations thereof. This paper takes a different approach. Since the horizontal and vertical differences of a medical image are each more sparse or compressible than the corresponding TV image, CS methods will be more successful in recovering these differences individually. We develop an algorithm called GradientRec that uses a CS algorithm to recover the horizontal and vertical gradients and then estimates the original image from these gradients. We present two methods of solving the latter inverse problem, i.e., one based on least-square optimization and the other based on a generalized Poisson solver. After a thorough derivation of our complete algorithm, we present the results of various experiments that compare the effectiveness of the proposed method against other leading methods. 2012
Groupwise Registration of Multimodal Images by an Efficient Joint Entropy Minimization Scheme Groupwise registration is concerned with bringing a group of images into the best spatial alignment. If images in the group are from different modalities, then the intensity correspondences across the images can be modeled by the joint density function (JDF) of the cooccurring image intensities. We propose a so-called treecode registration method for groupwise alignment of multimodal images that uses a hierarchical intensity-space subdivision scheme through which an efficient yet sufficiently accurate estimation of the (high-dimensional) JDF based on the Parzen kernel method is computed. To simultaneously align a group of images, a gradient-based joint entropy minimization was employed that also uses the same hierarchical intensity-space subdivision scheme. If the Hilbert kernel is used for the JDF estimation, then the treecode method requires no data-dependent bandwidth selection and is thus fully automatic. The treecode method was compared with the ensemble clustering (EC) method on four different publicly available multimodal image data sets and on a synthetic monomodal image data set. The obtained results indicate that the treecode method has similar and, for two data sets, even superior performances compared to the EC method in terms of registration error and success rate. The obtained good registration performances can be mostly attributed to the sufficiently accurate estimation of the JDF, which is computed through the hierarchical intensity-space subdivision scheme, that captures all the important features needed to detect the correct intensity correspondences across a multimodal group of images undergoing registration. 2012
Higher Degree Total Variation (HDTV) Regularization for Image Recovery We introduce novel image regularization penalties to overcome the practical problems associated with the classical total variation (TV) scheme. Motivated by novel reinterpretations of the classical TV regularizer, we derive two families of functionals involving higher degree partial image derivatives; we term these families as isotropic and anisotropic higher degree TV (HDTV) penalties, respectively. The isotropic penalty is the mixed norm of the directional image derivatives, while the anisotropic penalty is the separable norm of directional derivatives. These functionals inherit the desirable properties of standard TV schemes such as invariance to rotations and translations, preservation of discontinuities, and convexity. The use of mixed norms in isotropic penalties encourages the joint sparsity of the directional derivatives at each pixel, thus encouraging isotropic smoothing. In contrast, the fully separable norm in the anisotropic penalty ensures the preservation of discontinuities, while continuing to smooth along the line like features; this scheme thus enhances the linenlike image characteristics analogous to standard TV. We also introduce efficient majorize-minimize algorithms to solve the resulting optimization problems. The numerical comparison of the proposed scheme with classical TV penalty, current second-degree methods, and wavelet algorithms clearly demonstrate the performance improvement. Specifically, the proposed algorithms minimize the staircase and ringing artifacts that are common with TV and wavelet schemes, while better preserving the singularities. We also observe that anisotropic HDTV penalty provides consistently improved reconstructions compared with the isotropic HDTV penalty. 2012
Human Identification Using Finger Images This paper presents a new approach to improve the performance of finger-vein identification systems presented in the literature. The proposed system simultaneously acquires the finger-vein and low-resolution fingerprint images and combines these two evidences using a novel score-level combination strategy. We examine the previously proposed finger-vein identification approaches and develop a new approach that illustrates it superiority over prior published efforts. The utility of low-resolution fingerprint images acquired from a webcam is examined to ascertain the matching performance from such images. We develop and investigate two new score-level combinations, i.e., holistic and nonlinear fusion, and comparatively evaluate them with more popular score-level fusion approaches to ascertain their effectiveness in the proposed system. The rigorous experimental results presented on the database of 6264 images from 156 subjects illustrate significant improvement in the performance, i.e., both from the authentication and recognition experiments. 2012
Image Fusion Using Higher Order Singular Value Decomposition A novel higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD)-based image fusion algorithm is proposed. The key points are given as follows: 1) Since image fusion depends on local information of source images, the proposed algorithm picks out informative image patches of source images to constitute the fused image by processing the divided subtensors rather than the whole tensor; 2) the sum of absolute values of the coefficients (SAVC) from HOSVD of subtensors is employed for activity-level measurement to evaluate the quality of the related image patch; and 3) a novel sigmoid-function-like coefficient-combining scheme is applied to construct the fused result. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is an alternative image fusion approach. 2012
Image Segmentation Based on the Poincaré Map Method Active contour models (ACMs) integrated with various kinds of external force fields to pull the contours to the exact boundaries have shown their powerful abilities in object segmentation. However, local minimum problems still exist within these models, particularly the vector field’s “equilibrium issues.” Different from traditional ACMs, within this paper, the task of object segmentation is achieved in a novel manner by the Poincaré map method in a defined vector field in view of dynamical systems. An interpolated swirling and attracting flow (ISAF) vector field is first generated for the observed image. Then, the states on the limit cycles of the ISAF are located by the convergence of Newton-Raphson sequences on the given Poincaré sections. Meanwhile, the periods of limit cycles are determined. Consequently, the objects’ boundaries are represented by integral equations with the corresponding converged states and periods. Experiments and comparisons with some traditional external force field methods are done to exhibit the superiority of the proposed method in cases of complex concave boundary segmentation, multiple-object segmentation, and initialization flexibility. In addition, it is more computationally efficient than traditional ACMs by solving the problem in some lower dimensional subspace without using level-set methods. 2012
Implicit Polynomial Representation Through a Fast Fitting Error Estimation This paper presents a simple distance estimation for implicit polynomial fitting. It is computed as the height of a simplex built between the point and the surface (i.e., a triangle in 2-D or a tetrahedron in 3-D), which is used as a coarse but reliable estimation of the orthogonal distance. The proposed distance can be described as a function of the coefficients of the implicit polynomial. Moreover, it is differentiable and has a smooth behavior . Hence, it can be used in any gradient-based optimization. In this paper, its use in a Levenberg-Marquardt framework is shown, which is particularly devoted for nonlinear least squares problems. The proposed estimation is a generalization of the gradient-based distance estimation, which is widely used in the literature. Experimental results, both in 2-D and 3-D data sets, are provided. Comparisons with state-of-the-art techniques are presented, showing the advantages of the proposed approach. 2012
Integrating Segmentation Information for Improved MRF-Based Elastic Image Registration In this paper, we propose a method to exploit segmentation information for elastic image registration using a Markov-random-field (MRF)-based objective function. MRFs are suitable for discrete labeling problems, and the labels are defined as the joint occurrence of displacement fields (for registration) and segmentation class probability. The data penalty is a combination of the image intensity (or gradient information) and the mutual dependence of registration and segmentation information. The smoothness is a function of the interaction between the defined labels. Since both terms are a function of registration and segmentation labels, the overall objective function captures their mutual dependence. A multiscale graph-cut approach is used to achieve subpixel registration and reduce the computation time. The user defines the object to be registered in the floating image, which is rigidly registered before applying our method. We test our method on synthetic image data sets with known levels of added noise and simulated deformations, and also on natural and medical images. Compared with other registration methods not using segmentation information, our proposed method exhibits greater robustness to noise and improved registration accuracy. 2012
Iterative Narrowband-Based Graph Cuts Optimization for Geodesic Active Contours With Region Forces (GACWRF) In this paper, an iterative narrow-band-based graph cuts (INBBGC) method is proposed to optimize the geodesic active contours with region forces (GACWRF) model for interactive object segmentation. Based on cut metric on graphs proposed by Boykov and Kolmogorov, an NBBGC method is devised to compute the local minimization of GAC. An extension to an iterative manner, namely, INBBGC, is developed for less sensitivity to the initial curve. The INBBGC method is similar to graph-cuts-based active contour (GCBAC) presented by Xu , and their differences have been analyzed and discussed. We then integrate the region force into GAC. An improved INBBGC (IINBBGC) method is proposed to optimize the GACWRF model, thus can effectively deal with the concave region and complicated real-world images segmentation. Two region force models such as mean and probability models are studied. Therefore, the GCBAC method can be regarded as the special case of our proposed IINBBGC method without region force. Our proposed algorithm has been also analyzed to be similar to the Grabcut method when the Gaussian mixture model region force is adopted, and the band region is extended to the whole image. Thus, our proposed IINBBGC method can be regarded as narrow-band-based Grabcut method or GCBAC with region force method. We apply our proposed IINBBGC algorithm on synthetic and real-world images to emphasize its performance, compared with other segmentation methods, such as GCBAC and Grabcut methods. 2012
PDE-Based Enhancement of Color Images in RGB Space A novel method for color image enhancement is proposed as an extension of the scalar-diffusion-shock-filter coupling model, where noisy and blurred images are denoised and sharpened. The proposed model is based on using the single vectors of the gradient magnitude and the second derivatives as a manner to relate different color components of the image. This model can be viewed as a generalization of the Bettahar-Stambouli filter to multivalued images. The proposed algorithm is more efficient than the mentioned filter and some previous works at color images denoising and deblurring without creating false colors. 2012
Polyview Fusion A Strategy to Enhance Video-Denoising Algorithms We propose a simple but effective strategy that aims to enhance the performance of existing video denoising algorithms, i.e., polyview fusion (PVF). The idea is to denoise the noisy video as a 3-D volume using a given base 2-D denoising algorithm but applied from multiple views (front, top, and side views). A fusion algorithm is then designed to merge the resulting multiple denoised videos into one, so that the visual quality of the fused video is improved. Extensive tests using a variety of base video-denoising algorithms show that the proposed PVF method leads to surprisingly significant and consistent gain in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM) performance, particularly at high noise levels, where the improvement over state-of-the-art denoising algorithms is often more than 2 dB in PSNR. 2012
Preconditioning for Edge-Preserving Image Super Resolution We propose a simple preconditioning method for accelerating the solution of edge-preserving image super-resolution (SR) problems in which a linear shift-invariant point spread function is employed. Our technique involves reordering the high-resolution (HR) pixels in a similar manner to what is done in preconditioning methods for quadratic SR formulations. However, due to the edge preserving requirements, the Hessian matrix of the cost function varies during the minimization process. We develop an efficient update scheme for the preconditioner in order to cope with this situation. Unlike some other acceleration strategies that round the displacement values between the low-resolution (LR) images on the HR grid, the proposed method does not sacrifice the optimality of the observation model. In addition, we describe a technique for preconditioning SR problems involving rational magnification factors. The use of such factors is motivated in part by the fact that, under certain circumstances, optimal SR zooms are nonintegers. We show that, by reordering the pixels of the LR images, the structure of the problem to solve is modified in such a way that preconditioners based on circulant operators can be used. 2012
PSF Estimation via Gradient Domain Correlation This paper proposes an efficient method to estimate the point spread function (PSF) of a blurred image using image gradients spatial correlation. A patch-based image degradation model is proposed for estimating the sample covariance matrix of the gradient domain natural image. Based on the fact that the gradients of clean natural images are approximately uncorrelated to each other, we estimated the autocorrelation function of the PSF from the covariance matrix of gradient domain blurred image using the proposed patch-based image degradation model. The PSF is computed using a phase retrieval technique to remove the ambiguity introduced by the absence of the phase. Experimental results show that the proposed method significantly reduces the computational burden in PSF estimation, compared with existing methods, while giving comparable blurring kernel 2012
Rigid-Motion-Invariant Classification of 3-D Textures This paper studies the problem of 3-D rigid-motion- invariant texture discrimination for discrete 3-D textures that are spatially homogeneous by modeling them as stationary Gaussian random fields. The latter property and our formulation of a 3-D rigid motion of a texture reduce the problem to the study of 3-D rotations of discrete textures. We formally develop the concept of 3-D texture rotations in the 3-D digital domain. We use this novel concept to define a “distance” between 3-D textures that remains invariant under all 3-D rigid motions of the texture. This concept of “distance” can be used for a monoscale or a mill tiscale 3-D rigid- motion-invariant testing of the statistical similarity of the 3-D textures. To compute the “distance” between any two rotations R1 and R2 of two given 3-D textures, we use the Kullback-Leibler divergence between 3-D Gaussian Markov random fields fitted to the rotated texture data. Then, the 3-D rigid-motion-invariant texture distance is the integral average, with respect to the Haar measure of the group SO(3), of all of these divergences when rotations R1 and R2 vary throughout SO(3). We also present an algorithm enabling the computation of the proposed 3-D rigid-motion-invariant texture distance as well as rules for 3-D rigid-motion-invariant texture discrimination/classification and experimental results demonstrating the capabilities of the proposed 3-D rigid-motion texture discrimination rules when applied in a multiscale setting, even on very general 3-D texture models. 2012
Robust Image Hashing Based on Random Gabor Filtering and Dithered Lattice Vector Quantization In this paper, we propose a robust-hash function based on random Gabor filtering and dithered lattice vector quantization (LVQ). In order to enhance the robustness against rotation manipulations, the conventional Gabor filter is adapted to be rotation invariant, and the rotation-invariant filter is randomized to facilitate secure feature extraction. Particularly, a novel dithered-LVQ-based quantization scheme is proposed for robust hashing. The dithered-LVQ-based quantization scheme is well suited for robust hashing with several desirable features, including better tradeoff between robustness and discrimination, higher randomness, and secrecy, which are validated by analytical and experimental results. The performance of the proposed hashing algorithm is evaluated over a test image database under various content-preserving manipulations. The proposed hashing algorithm shows superior robustness and discrimination performance compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms, particularly in the robustness against rotations (of large degrees). 2012
Snakes With an Ellipse-Reproducing Property We present a new class of continuously defined parametric snakes using a special kind of exponential splines as basis functions. We have enforced our bases to have the shortest possible support subject to some design constraints to maximize efficiency. While the resulting snakes are versatile enough to provide a good approximation of any closed curve in the plane, their most important feature is the fact that they admit ellipses within their span. Thus, they can perfectly generate circular and elliptical shapes. These features are appropriate to delineate cross sections of cylindrical-like conduits and to outline bloblike objects. We address the implementation details and illustrate the capabilities of our snake with synthetic and real data. 2012

 

TECHNOLOGY                               : JAVA DOMAIN                                            : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

 

S.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
Automated Behavioral Testing of Refactoring Engines We present a technique to test Java refactoring engines. It automates test input generation by using a Java program generator that exhaustively generates programs for a given scope of Java declarations. The refactoring under2test is applied to each generated program. The technique uses SAFEREFACTOR, a tool for detecting behavioral changes, as oracle to evaluate the correctness of these transformations. 2012
Towards Comprehensible Software Fault Prediction Models Using Bayesian Network Classifiers This study contributes to the literature by considering 15 different Bayesian Network (BN) classifiers and comparing them to other popular machine learning techniques. Furthermore, the applicability of the Markov blanket principle for feature selection, which is a natural extension to BN theory, is investigated. 2012
Using Dependency Structures for Prioritisation of Functional Test Suites In this paper, we present a family of test case prioritisation techniques that use the dependency information from a test suite to prioritise that test suite. The nature of the techniques preserves the dependencies in the test ordering. 2012
Automatically Generating Test Cases for Specification Mining Dynamic specification mining observes program executions to infer models of normal program behavior. What makes us believe that we have seen sufficiently many executions? The TAUTOKO (“Tautoko” is the Mãori word for “enhance, enrich.”) typestate miner generates test cases that cover previously unobserved behavior, systematically extending the execution space, and enriching the specification. To our knowledge, this is the first combination of systematic test case generation and typestate mining-a combination with clear benefits: On a sample of 800 defects seeded into six Java subjects, a static typestate verifier fed with enriched models would report significantly more true positives and significantly fewer false positives than the initial models 2012
Fault Localization for Dynamic Web Applications In recent years, there has been significant interest in fault-localization techniques that are based on statistical analysis of program constructs executed by passing and failing executions. This paper shows how the Tarantula, Ochiai, and Jaccard fault-localization algorithms can be enhanced to localize faults effectively in web applications written in PHP by using an extended domain for conditional and function-call statements and by using a source mapping. We also propose several novel test-generation strategies that are geared toward producing test suites that have maximal fault-localization effectiveness. We implemented various fault-localization techniques and test-generation strategies in Apollo, and evaluated them on several open-source PHP applications. Our results indicate that a variant of the Ochiai algorithm that includes all our enhancements localizes 87.8 percent of all faults to within 1 percent of all executed statements, compared to only 37.4 percent for the unenhanced Ochiai algorithm. We also found that all the test-generation strategies that we considered are capable of generating test suites with maximal fault-localization effectiveness when given an infinite time budget for test generation. However, on average, a directed strategy based on path-constraint similarity achieves this maximal effectiveness after generating only 6.5 tests, compared to 46.8 tests for an undirected test-generation strategy. 2012

 

TECHNOLOGY       : JAVA DOMAIN                   : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GRID & CLOUD COMPUTING

 

 

S.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
Business-OWL (BOWL)—A Hierarchical Task Network Ontology for Dynamic Business Process Decomposition and Formulation This paper introduces the Business-OWL (BOWL), an ontology rooted in the Web Ontology Language (OWL), and modeled as a Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) for the dynamic formation of business processes 2012
Detecting And Resolving Firewall Policy Anomalies The advent of emerging computing technologies such as service-oriented architecture and cloud computing has enabled us to perform business services more efficiently and effectively. 2012
Online System for Grid Resource Monitoring and Machine Learning-Based Prediction In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of system architecture for grid resource monitoring and prediction. We discuss the key issues for system implementation, including machine learning-based methodologies for modeling and optimization of resource prediction models. 2012
SOAP Processing Performance and Enhancement SOAP communications produce considerable network traffic, making them unfit for distributed, loosely coupled and heterogeneous computing environments such as the open Internet. They introduce higher latency and processing delays than other technologies, like Java RMI & CORBA. WS research has recently focused on SOAP performance enhancement. 2011
Weather data sharing system: an agent-based distributed data management Intelligent agents can play an important role in helping achieve the ‘data grid’ vision. In this study, the authors present a multi-agent-based framework to implement manage, share and query weather data in a geographical distributed environment, named weather data sharing system 2011
pCloud: A Distributed System for Practical PIR In this paper we present pCloud, a distributed system that constitutes the ?rst attempt towards practical cPIR. Our approach assumes a disk-based architecture that retrieves one page with a single query. Using a striping technique, we distribute the database to a number of cooperative peers, and leverage their computational resources to process cPIR queries in parallel. We implemented pCloud on the PlanetLab network, and experimented extensively with several system parameters. Results 2012
A Gossip Protocol for Dynamic Resource Management in Large Cloud Environments. We address the problem of dynamic resource management for a large-scale cloud environment. Our contribution includes outlining a distributed middleware architecture and presenting one of its key elements: a gossip protocol that (1) ensures fair resource allocation among sites/applications, (2) dynamically adapts the allocation to load changes and (3) scales both in the number of physical machines and sites/applications. 2012
A Novel Process Network Model for Interacting Context-aware Web Services In this paper, we explore a novel approach to model dynamic behaviors of interacting context-aware web services. It aims to effectively process and take advantage of contexts and realize behavior adaptation of web services, further to facilitate the development of context-aware application of web services. 2012
Monitoring and Detecting Abnormal Behavior in MobileCloud Infrastructure Recently, several mobile services are changing to cloud-based mobile services with richer communications and higher flexibility. We present a new mobile cloud infrastructure that combines mobile devices and cloud services. This new infrastructure provides virtual mobile instances through cloud computing. To commercialize new services with this infrastructure, service providers should be aware of security issues. Here, we first define new mobile cloud services through mobile cloud infrastructure and discuss possible security threats through the use of several service scenarios. Then, we propose a methodology and architecture for detecting abnormal behavior through the monitoring of both host and network data. To validate our methodology, we injected malicious programs into our mobile cloud test bed and used a machine learning algorithm to detect the abnormal behavior that arose from these programs. 2012
Impact of Storage Acquisition Intervals on the Cost-Efficiency of the Private vs. Public Storage. The volume of worldwide digital content has increased nine-fold within the last five years, and this immense growth is predicted to continue in foreseeable future eaching 8ZB already by 2015. Traditionally, in order to cope with the growing demand for storage capacity, organizations proactively built and managed their private storage facilities. Recently, with the proliferation of public cloud infrastructure offerings, many organizations, instead, welcomed the alternative of outsourcing their storage needs to the providers of public cloud storage services. The comparative cost-efficiency of these two alternatives depends on a number of factors, among which are e.g. the prices of the public and private storage, the charging and the storage acquisition intervals, and the predictability of the demand for storage. In this paper, we study how the cost-efficiency of the private vs. public storage depends on the acquisition interval at which the organization re-assessesits storage needs and acquires additional private storage. The analysis in the paper suggests that the shorter the acquisition interval, the more likely it is that the private storage solution is less expensive as compared with the public cloud infrastructure. This phenomenon is also illustrated in the paper numerically using the storage needs encountered by a university back-up and archiving service as an example. Since the acquisition interval is determined by the organization’s ability to foresee the growth of storage demand, by the provisioning schedules of storage equipment providers, and by internal practices of the organization, among other factors, the organization owning a private storage solution may want to control some of these factors in order to attain a shorter acquisition interval and thus make the private storage (more) cost-efficient.. 2012
Managing A Cloud for Multi-agent Systems on  Ad-hoc Networks We present a novel execution environment for multiagent systems building on concepts from cloud computing and peer-to-peer networks. The novel environment can provide the computing power of a cloud for multi-agent systems in intermittently connected networks. We present the design and implementation of a prototype operating system for managing the environment. The operating system provides the user with a consistent view of a single machine, a single file system, and a unified programming model while providing elasticity and availability. 2012
Cloud Computing Security: From Single toMulti-Clouds The use of cloud computing has increased rapidly in many organizations. Cloud computing provides many benefits in terms of low cost and accessibility of data. Ensuring the security of cloud computing is a major factor in the cloud computing environment, as users often store sensitive information with cloud storage providers but these providers may be untrusted. Dealing with “single cloud” providers is predicted to become less popular with customers due to risks of service availability failure and the possibility of malicious insiders in the single cloud. A movement towards “multi-clouds”, or in other words, “interclouds” or “cloud-ofclouds”has emerged recently. This paper surveys recent research related to single and multi-cloud security and addresses possible solutions. It is found that the research into the use of multicloud providers to maintain security has received less attention from the research community than has the use of single clouds. This work aims to promote the use of  multi-clouds due to its ability to reduce security risks that affect the cloud computing user. 2012
Optimization of Resource Provisioning Cost in Cloud Computing In cloud computing, cloud providers can offer cloud consumers two provisioning plans for computing resources, namely reservation and on-demand plans. In general, cost of utilizing computing resources provisioned by reservation plan is cheaper than that provisioned by on-demand plan, since cloud consumer has to pay to provider in advance. With the reservation plan, the consumer can reduce the total resource provisioning cost. However, the best advance reservation of resources is difficult to be achieved due to uncertainty of consumer’s future demand and providers’ resource prices. To address this problem, an optimal cloud resource provisioning (OCRP) algorithm is proposed by formulating a stochastic programming model. The OCRP algorithm can provision computing resources for being used in multiple provisioning stages as well as a long-term plan, e.g., four stages in a quarter plan and twelve stages in a yearly plan. The demand and price uncertainty is considered in OCRP. In this paper, different approaches to obtain the solution of the OCRP algorithm are considered including deterministic equivalent formulation, sample-average approximation, and Benders decomposition. Numerical studies are extensively performed in which the results clearly show that with the OCRP algorithm, cloud consumer can successfully minimize total cost of resource provisioning in cloud computing environments 2012
A Secure Erasure Code-Based Cloud Storage System with Secure Data Forwarding A cloud storage system, consisting of a collection of storage servers, provides long-term storage services over the Internet.Storing data in a third party’s cloud system causes serious concern over data confidentiality. General encryption schemes protect data confidentiality, but also limit the functionality of the storage system because a few operations are supported over encrypted data. Constructing a secure storage system that supports multiple functions is challenging when the storage system is distributed and has no central authority. We propose a threshold proxy re-encryption scheme and integrate it with a decentralized erasure code such that a secure distributed storage system is formulated. The distributed storage system not only supports secure and robust data storage and retrieval, but also lets a user forward his data in the storage servers to another user without retrieving the data back. The main technical contribution is that the proxy re-encryption scheme supports encoding operations over encrypted messages as well as forwarding operations over encoded and encrypted messages. Our method fully integrates encrypting, encoding, and forwarding. We analyze and suggest suitable parameters for the number of copies of a message dispatched to storage servers and the number of storage servers queried by a key server. These parameters allow more flexible adjustment between the number of storage servers . 2012
HASBE: A Hierarchical Attribute-Based Solution for Flexible and Scalable Access Control in Cloud Computing Cloud computing has emerged as one of the most influential paradigms in the IT industry in recent years. Since thisnew computing technology requires users to entrust their valuable data to cloud providers, there have been increasing security and privacy concerns on outsourced data. Several schemes employing attribute-based encryption (ABE) have been proposed for access control of outsourced data in cloud computing; however, most of them suffer from inflexibility in implementing complex access control policies. In order to realize scalable, flexible, and fine-grained access control of outsourced data in cloud computing, in this paper, we propose hierarchical attribute-set-based encryption (HASBE) by extending ciphertext-policy attribute-set-based encryption (ASBE) with a hierarchical structure of users. The proposed scheme not only achieves scalability due to its hierarchical structure, but also inherits flexibility and fine-grained access control in supporting compound attributes of ASBE. In addition, HASBE employs multiple value assignments for access expiration time to deal with user revocation more efficiently than existing schemes. We formally prove the security of HASBE based on security of the ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) scheme by Bethencourt et al. and analyze its performance and computational complexity. We implement our scheme and show that it is both efficient and flexible in dealing with access control for outsourced data in cloud computing with comprehensive experiments. 2012
A Distributed Access Control Architecture for Cloud Computing The large-scale, dynamic, and heterogeneous nature of cloud computing poses numerous security challenges. But the cloud’s main challenge is to provide a robust authorization mechanism that incorporates multitenancy and virtualization aspects of resources. The authors present a distributed architecture that incorporates principles from security management and software engineering and propose key requirements and a design model for the architecture. 2012
Cloud Computing Security: From Single to Multi-clouds The use of cloud computing has increased rapidly in many organizations. Cloud computing provides many benefits in terms of low cost and accessibility of data. Ensuring the security of cloud computing is a major factor in the cloud computing environment, as users often store sensitive information with cloud storage providers but these providers may be untrusted. Dealing with “single cloud” providers is predicted to become less popular with customers due to risks of service availability failure and the possibility of malicious insiders in the single cloud. A movement towards “multi-clouds”, or in other words, “interclouds” or “cloud-of-clouds” has emerged recently. This paper surveys recent research related to single and multi-cloud security and addresses possible solutions. It is found that the research into the use of multi-cloud providers to maintain security has received less attention from the research community than has the use of single clouds. This work aims to promote the use of multi-clouds due to its ability to reduce security risks that affect the cloud computing user. 2012
  1. 18.
Scalable and Secure Sharing of Personal Health Records in Cloud Computing using Attribute-based Encryption Personal health record (PHR) is an emerging patient-centric model of health information exchange, which is often outsourced to be stored at a third party, such as cloud providers. However, there have been wide privacy concerns as personal health information could be exposed to those third party servers and to unauthorized parties. To assure the patients’ control over access to their own PHRs, it is a promising method to encrypt the PHRs before outsourcing. Yet, issues such as risks of privacy exposure, scalability in key management, flexible access and efficient user revocation, have remained the most important challenges toward achieving fine-grained, cryptographically enforced data access control. In this paper, we propose a novel patient-centric framework and a suite of mechanisms for data access control to PHRs stored in semi-trusted servers. To achieve fine-grained and scalable data access control for PHRs, we leverage attribute based encryption (ABE) techniques to encrypt each patient’s PHR file. Different from previous works in secure data outsourcing, we focus on the multiple data owner scenario, and divide the users in the PHR system into multiple security domains that greatly reduces the key management complexity for owners and users. A high degree of patient privacy is guaranteed simultaneously by exploiting multi-authority ABE. Our scheme also enables dynamic modification of access policies or file attributes, supports efficient on-demand user/attribute revocation and break-glass access under emergency scenarios. Extensive analytical and experimental results are presented which show the security, scalability and efficiency of our proposed scheme 2012
Cloud Data Production for Masses Offering strong data protection to cloud users while enabling rich applications is a challenging task. We explore a new cloud platform architecture called Data Protection as a Service, which dramatically reduces the per-application development effort required to offer data protection, while still allowing rapid development and maintenance. 2012
  1. 20.
Secure and Practical Outsourcing of Linear Programming in Cloud Computing Cloud Computing has great potential of providing robust computational power to the society at reduced cost. It enables customers with limited computational resources to outsource their large computation workloads to the cloud, and economically enjoy the massive computational power, bandwidth, storage, and even appropriate software that can be shared in a pay-per-use manner. Despite the tremendous benefits, security is the primary obstacle that prevents the wide adoption of this promising computing model, especially for customers when their confidential data are consumed and produced during the computation. Treating the cloud as an intrinsically insecure computing platform from the viewpoint of the cloud customers, we must design mechanisms that not only protect sensitive information by enabling computations with encrypted data, but also protect customers from malicious behaviors by enabling the validation of the computation result. Such a mechanism of general secure computation outsourcing was recently shown to be feasible in theory, but to design mechanisms that are practically efficient remains a very challenging problem. Focusing on engineering computing and optimization tasks, this paper investigates secure outsourcing of widely applicable linear programming (LP) computations. In order to achieve practical efficiency, our mechanism design explicitly decomposes the LP computation outsourcing into public LP solvers running on the cloud and private LP parameters owned by the customer. The resulting flexibility allows us to explore appropriate security/ efficiency tradeoff via higher-level abstraction of LP computations than the general circuit representation. In particular, by formulating private data owned by the customer for LP problem as a set of matrices and vectors, we are able to develop a set of efficient privacy-preserving problem transformation techniques, which allow customers to transform original LP problem into some arbitrary one while protecting sensitive input/output information. To validate the computation result, we further explore the fundamental duality theorem of LP computation and derive the necessary and sufficient conditions that correct result must satisfy. Such result verification mechanism is extremely efficient and incurs close-to-zero additional cost on both cloud server and customers. Extensive security analysis and experiment results show the immediate practicability of our mechanism design. 2012
  1. 21.
Efficient audit service outsourcing for data integrity in clouds – projects 2012 Cloud-based outsourced storage relieves the client’s burden for storage management and maintenance by providing a comparably low-cost, scalable, location-independent platform. However, the fact that clients no longer have physical possession of data indicates that they are facing a potentially formidable risk for missing or corrupted data. To avoid the security risks, audit services are critical to ensure the integrity and availability of outsourced data and to achieve digital forensics and credibility on cloud computing. Provable data possession (PDP), which is a cryptographic technique for verifying the integrity of data without retrieving it at an untrusted server, can be used to realize audit services. In this paper, profiting from the interactive zero-knowledge proof system, we address the construction of an interactive PDP protocol to prevent the fraudulence of prover (soundness property) and the leakage of verified data (zero-knowledge property). We prove that our construction holds these properties based on the computation Diffie–Hellman assumption and the rewindable black-box knowledge extractor. We also propose an efficient mechanism with respect to probabilistic queries and periodic verification to reduce the audit costs per verification and implement abnormal detection timely. In addition, we present an efficient method for selecting an optimal parameter value to minimize computational overheads of cloud audit services. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach 2012
  1. 22.
Efficient audit service outsourcing for data integrity in clouds – projects 2012 Cloud-based outsourced storage relieves the client’s burden for storage management and maintenance by providing a comparably low-cost, scalable, location-independent platform. However, the fact that clients no longer have physical possession of data indicates that they are facing a potentially formidable risk for missing or corrupted data. To avoid the security risks, audit services are critical to ensure the integrity and availability of outsourced data and to achieve digital forensics and credibility on cloud computing. Provable data possession (PDP), which is a cryptographic technique for verifying the integrity of data without retrieving it at an untrusted server, can be used to realize audit services. In this paper, profiting from the interactive zero-knowledge proof system, we address the construction of an interactive PDP protocol to prevent the fraudulence of prover (soundness property) and the leakage of verified data (zero-knowledge property). We prove that our construction holds these properties based on the computation Diffie–Hellman assumption and the rewindable black-box knowledge extractor. We also propose an efficient mechanism with respect to probabilistic queries and periodic verification to reduce the audit costs per verification and implement abnormal detection timely. In addition, we present an efficient method for selecting an optimal parameter value to minimize computational overheads of cloud audit services. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. 2012
  1. 23.
Secure and privacy preserving keyword searching for cloud storage services – projects 2012 Cloud storage services enable users to remotely access data in a cloud anytime and anywhere, using any device, in a pay-as-you-go manner. Moving data into a cloud offers great convenience to users since they do not have to care about the large capital investment in both the deployment and management of the hardware infrastructures. However, allowing a cloud service provider (CSP), whose purpose is mainly for making a profit, to take the custody of sensitive data, raises underlying security and privacy issues. To keep user data confidential against an untrusted CSP, a natural way is to apply cryptographic approaches, by disclosing the data decryption key only to authorized users. However, when a user wants to retrieve files containing certain keywords using a thin client, the adopted encryption system should not only support keyword searching over encrypted data, but also provide high performance. In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of cloud storage services and propose a secure and privacy preserving keyword searching (SPKS) scheme, which allows the CSP to participate in the decipherment, and to return only files containing certain keywords specified by the users, so as to reduce both the computational and communication overhead in decryption for users, on the condition of preserving user data privacy and user querying privacy. Performance analysis shows that the SPKS scheme is applicable to a cloud environment 2012
  1. 24.
Secure and privacy preserving keyword searching for cloud storage services – projects 2012 Cloud storage services enable users to remotely access data in a cloud anytime and anywhere, using any device, in a pay-as-you-go manner. Moving data into a cloud offers great convenience to users since they do not have to care about the large capital investment in both the deployment and management of the hardware infrastructures. However, allowing a cloud service provider (CSP), whose purpose is mainly for making a profit, to take the custody of sensitive data, raises underlying security and privacy issues. To keep user data confidential against an untrusted CSP, a natural way is to apply cryptographic approaches, by disclosing the data decryption key only to authorized users. However, when a user wants to retrieve files containing certain keywords using a thin client, the adopted encryption system should not only support keyword searching over encrypted data, but also provide high performance. In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of cloud storage services and propose a secure and privacy preserving keyword searching (SPKS) scheme, which allows the CSP to participate in the decipherment, and to return only files containing certain keywords specified by the users, so as to reduce both the computational and communication overhead in decryption for users, on the condition of preserving user data privacy and user querying privacy. Performance analysis shows that the SPKS scheme is applicable to a cloud environment 2012
  1. 25.
Cooperative Provable Data Possession for Integrity Verification in Multi-Cloud Storage Provable data possession (PDP) is a technique for ensuring the integrity of data in storage outsourcing. In this paper, we address the construction of an efficient PDP scheme for distributed cloud storage to support the scalability of service and data migration, in which we consider the existence of multiple cloud service providers to cooperatively store and maintain the clients’ data. We present a cooperative PDP (CPDP) scheme based on homomorphic verifiable response and hash index hierarchy. We prove the security of our scheme based on multi-prover zero-knowledge proof system, which can satisfy completeness, knowledge soundness, and zero-knowledge properties. In addition, we articulate performance optimization mechanisms for our scheme, and in particular present an efficient method for selecting optimal parameter values to minimize the computation costs of clients and storage service providers. Our experiments show that our solution introduces lower computation and communication overheads in comparison with non-cooperative approaches 2012
  1. 26.
Cooperative Provable Data Possession for Integrity Verification in Multi-Cloud Storage Provable data possession (PDP) is a technique for ensuring the integrity of data in storage outsourcing. In this paper, we address the construction of an efficient PDP scheme for distributed cloud storage to support the scalability of service and data migration, in which we consider the existence of multiple cloud service providers to cooperatively store and maintain the clients’ data. We present a cooperative PDP (CPDP) scheme based on homomorphic verifiable response and hash index hierarchy. We prove the security of our scheme based on multi-prover zero-knowledge proof system, which can satisfy completeness, knowledge soundness, and zero-knowledge properties. In addition, we articulate performance optimization mechanisms for our scheme, and in particular present an efficient method for selecting optimal parameter values to minimize the computation costs of clients and storage service providers. Our experiments show that our solution introduces lower computation and communication overheads in comparison with non-cooperative approaches 2012
  1. 27.
Bootstrapping Ontologies for Web Services – projects 2012 Ontologies have become the de-facto modeling tool of choice, employed in many applications and prominently in the semantic web. Nevertheless, ontology construction remains a daunting task. Ontological bootstrapping, which aims at automatically generating concepts and their relations in a given domain, is a promising technique for ontology construction. Bootstrapping an ontology based on a set of predefined textual sources, such as web services, must address the problem of multiple, largely unrelated concepts. In this paper, we propose an ontology bootstrapping process for web services. We exploit the advantage that web services usually consist of both WSDL and free text descriptors. The WSDL descriptor is evaluated using two methods, namely Term Frequency/Inverse Document Frequency (TF/IDF) and web context generation. Our proposed ontology bootstrapping process integrates the results of both methods and applies a third method to validate the concepts using the service free text descriptor, thereby offering a more accurate definition of ontologies. We extensively validated our bootstrapping method using a large repository of real-world web services and verified the results against existing ontologies. The experimental results indicate high precision. Furthermore, the recall versus precision comparison of the results when each method is separately implemented presents the advantage of our integrated bootstrapping approach. 2012
Data Security and Privacy Protection Issues in Cloud Computing It is well-known that cloud computing has many potential advantages and many enterprise applications and data are migrating to public or hybrid cloud. But regarding some business-critical applications, the organizations, especially large enterprises, still wouldn’t move them to cloud. The market size the cloud computing shared is still far behind the one expected. From the consumers’ perspective, cloud computing security concerns, especially data security and privacy protection issues, remain the primary inhibitor for adoption of cloud computing services. This paper provides a concise but all-round analysis on data security and privacy protection issues associated with cloud computing across all stages of data life cycle. Then this paper discusses some current solutions. Finally, this paper describes future research work about data security and privacy protection issues in cloud. 2012
Stochastic models of load balancing and scheduling in cloud computing clusters Cloud computing services are becoming ubiquitous, and are starting to serve as the primary source of computing power for both enterprises and personal computing applications. We consider a stochastic model of a cloud computing cluster, where jobs arrive according to a stochastic process and request virtual machines (VMs), which are specified in terms of resources such as CPU, memory and storage space. While there are many design issues associated with such systems, here we focus only on resource allocation problems, such as the design of algorithms for load balancing among servers, and algorithms for scheduling VM configurations. Given our model of a cloud, we first define its capacity, i.e., the maximum rates at which jobs can be processed in such a system. Then, we show that the widely-used Best-Fit scheduling algorithm is not throughput-optimal, and present alternatives which achieve any arbitrary fraction of the capacity region of the cloud. We then study the delay performance of these alternative algorithms through simulations. 2012
A comber approach to protect cloud computing against XML DDoS and HTTP DDoS attack Cloud computing is an internet based pay as use service which provides three layered services (Software as a Service, Platform as a Service and Infrastructure as a Service) to its consumers on demand. These on demand service facilities provide to its consumers in multitenant environment but as facility increases complexity and security problems also increase. Here all the resources are at one place in data centers. Cloud uses public and private APIs (Application Programming Interface) to provide services to its consumers in multitenant environment. In this environment Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS), especially HTTP, XML or REST based DDoS attacks may be very dangerous and may provide very harmful effects for availability of services and all consumers will get affected at the same time. One other reason is that because the cloud computing users make their request in XML then send this request using HTTP protocol and build their system interface with REST protocol such as Amazon EC2 or Microsoft Azure. So the threaten coming from distributed REST attacks are more and easy to implement by the attacker, but to security expert very difficult to resolve. So to resolve these attacks this paper introduces a comber approach for security services called filtering tree. This filtering tree has five filters to detect and resolve XML and HTTP DDoS attack 2012
Resource allocation and scheduling in cloud computing Cloud computing is a platform that hosts applications and services for businesses and users to accesses computing as a service. In this paper, we identify two scheduling and resource allocation problems in cloud computing. We describe Hadoop MapReduce and its schedulers, and present recent research efforts in this area including alternative schedulers and enhancements to existing schedulers. The second scheduling problem is the provisioning of virtual machines to resources in the cloud. We present a survey of the different approaches to solve this resource allocation problem. We also include recent research and standards for inter-connecting clouds and discuss the suitability of running scientific applications in the cloud. 2012
Application study of online education platform based on cloud computing Aimed at some problems in Network Education Resources Construction at present, we analyse the characteristics and application range of cloud computing, and present an integrated solving scheme. On that basis, some critical technologies such as the cloud storage, streaming media and cloud safety are analyzed in detail. Finally, the paper gives summarization and expectation. 2012
Towards temporal access control in cloud computing Access control is one of the most important security mechanisms in cloud computing. Attribute-based access control provides a flexible approach that allows data owners to integrate data access policies within the encrypted data. However, little work has been done to explore temporal attributes in specifying and enforcing the data owner’s policy and the data user’s privileges in cloud-based environments. In this paper, we present an efficient temporal access control encryption scheme for cloud services with the help of cryptographic integer comparisons and a proxy-based re-encryption mechanism on the current time. We also provide a dual comparative expression of integer ranges to extend the power of attribute expression for implementing various temporal constraints. We prove the security strength of the proposed scheme and our experimental results not only validate the effectiveness of our scheme, but also show that the proposed integer comparison scheme performs significantly better than previous bitwise comparison scheme. 2012
Privacy-Preserving DRM for Cloud Computing We come up with a digital rights management (DRM) concept for cloud computing and show how license management for software within the cloud can be achieved in a privacy-friendly manner. In our scenario, users who buy software from software providers stay anonymous. At the same time, our approach guarantees that software licenses are bound to users and their validity is checked before execution. We employ a software re-encryption scheme so that computing centers which execute users’ software are not able to build user profiles – not even under pseudonym – of their users. We combine secret sharing and homomorphic encryption. We make sure that malicious users are unable to relay software to others. DRM constitutes an incentive for software providers to take partin a future cloud computing scenario. We make this scenario more attractive for users by preserving their privacy. 2012
Pricing and peak aware scheduling algorithm for cloud computing The proposed cloud computing scheduling algorithms demonstrated feasibility of interactions between distributors and one of their heavy use customers in a smart grid environment. Specifically, the proposed algorithms take cues from the dynamic pricing and schedule the jobs/tasks in ways that the energy usage is what distributors are hinted. In addition, a peak threshold can be dynamically assigned such that the energy usage at any given time will not exceed the threshold. The proposed scheduling algorithm proved the feasibility of managing the energy usage of cloud computers in collaboration with the energy distributor 2012
Comparison of Network Intrusion Detection Systems in cloud computing environment Computer Networks face a constant struggle against intruders and attackers. Attacks on distributed systems grow stronger and more prevalent each and every day. Intrusion detection methods are a key to control and potentially eradicate attacks on a system. An Intrusion detection system pertains to the methods used to identify an attack on a computer or computer network. In cloud computing environment the applications are user-centric and the customers should be confident about their applications stored in the cloud server. Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) plays an important role in providing the network security. They provide a defence layer which monitors the network traffic for pre-defined suspicious activity or pattern. In this paper Snort, Tcpdump and Network Flight Recorder which are the most famous NIDS in cloud system are examined and contrasted. 2012
Intelligent and Active Defense Strategy of Cloud Computing Cloud’s development has entered the practical stage, but safety issues must be resolved. How to avoid the risk on the web page, how to prevent attacks from hacker, how to protect user data in the cloud. This paper discusses some satety solution :the credit level of web page, Trace data, analyze and filter them by large-scale statistical methods, encryption protection of user data and key management. 2012
Distributed Shared Memory as an Approach for Integrating WSNs and Cloud Computing In this paper we discuss the idea of combining wireless sensor networks and cloud computing starting with a state of the art analysis of existing approaches in this field. As result of the analysis we propose to reflect a real wireless sensor network by virtual sensors in the cloud. The main idea is to replicate data stored on the real sensor nodes also in the virtual sensors, without explicit triggering such updates from the application. We provide a short overview of the resulting architecture before explaining mechanisms to realize it. The means to ensure a certain level of consistency between the real WSN and the virtual sensors in the cloud is distributed shared memory. In order to realize DSM in WSNs we have developed a middleware named tinyDSM which is shortly introduced here and which provides means for replicating sensor data and ensuring the consistency of the replicates. Even though tinyDSM is a pretty good vehicle to realize our idea there are some open issues that need to be addressed when realizing such an architecture. We discuss these challenges in an abstract way to ensure clear separation between the idea and its specific realization. 2012
Improving resource allocation in multi-tier cloud systems Even though the adoption of cloud computing and virtualization have improved resource utilization to a great extent, the continued traditional approach of resource allocation in production environments has introduced the problem of over-provisioning of resources for enterprise-class applications hosted in cloud systems. In this paper, we address the problem and propose ways to minimize over-provisioning of IT resources in multi-tier cloud systems by adopting an innovative approach of application performance monitoring and resource allocation at individual tier levels, on the basis of criticality of the business services and availability of the resources at one’s disposal. 2012
Ensuring Distributed Accountability for Data Sharing in the Cloud Cloud computing enables highly scalable services to be easily consumed over the Internet on an as-needed basis. A major feature of the cloud services is that users’ data are usually processed remotely in unknown machines that users do not own or operate. While enjoying the convenience brought by this new emerging technology, users’ fears of losing control of their own data (particularly, financial and health data) can become a significant barrier to the wide adoption of cloud services. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel highly decentralized information accountability framework to keep track of the actual usage of the users’ data in the cloud. In particular, we propose an object-centered approach that enables enclosing our logging mechanism together with users’ data and policies. We leverage the JAR programmable capabilities to both create a dynamic and traveling object, and to ensure that any access to users’ data will trigger authentication and automated logging local to the JARs. To strengthen user’s control, we also provide distributed auditing mechanisms. We provide extensive experimental studies that demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approaches. 2012
Efficient information retrieval for ranked queries in cost-effective cloud environments Cloud computing as an emerging technology trend is expected to reshape the advances in information technology. In this paper, we address two fundamental issues in a cloud environment: privacy and efficiency. We first review a private keyword-based file retrieval scheme proposed by Ostrovsky et. al. Then, based on an aggregation and distribution layer (ADL), we present a scheme, termed efficient information retrieval for ranked query (EIRQ), to further reduce querying costs incurred in the cloud. Queries are classified into multiple ranks, where a higher ranked query can retrieve a higher percentage of matched files. Extensive evaluations have been conducted on an analytical model to examine the effectiveness of our scheme. 2012

 

TECHNOLOGY  : JAVA DOMAIN              : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTIMEDIA 

 

S.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
Movie2Comics: Towards a Lively Video Content Presentation This paper proposes a scheme that is able to automatically turn a movie clip to comics. Two principles are followed in the scheme: 1) optimizing the information preservation of the movie; and 2) generating outputs following the rules and the styles of comics. The scheme mainly contains three components: script-face mapping, descriptive picture extraction, and cartoonization. The script-face mapping utilizes face tracking and recognition techniques to accomplish the mapping between characters’ faces and their scripts 2012
Robust Watermarking of Compressed and Encrypted JPEG2000 Images In this paper, we propose a robust watermarking algorithm to watermark JPEG2000 compressed and encrypted images. The encryption algorithm we propose to use is a stream cipher. While the proposed technique embeds watermark in the compressed-encrypted domain, the extraction ofwatermark can be done in the decrypted domain 2012
Load-Balancing Multipath Switching System with Flow Slice Multipath Switching systems (MPS) are intensely used in state-of-the-art core routers to provide terabit or even petabit switching capacity. One of the most intractable issues in designing MPS is how to load balance traffic across its multiple paths while not disturbing the intraflow packet orders. Previous packet-based solutions either suffer from delay penalties or lead to O(N2 ) hardware complexity, hence do not scale. Flow-based hashing algorithms also perform badly due to the heavy-tailed flow-size distribution. In this paper, we develop a novel scheme, namely, Flow Slice (FS) that cuts off each flow into flow slices at every intraflow interval larger than a slicing threshold and balances the load on a finer granularity. Based on the studies of tens of real Internet traces, we show that setting a slicing threshold of 1-4 ms, the FS scheme achieves comparative load-balancing performance to the optimal one. It also limits the probability of out-of-order packets to a negligible level (10-6) on three popular MPSes at the cost of little hardware complexity and an internal speedup up to two. These results are proven by theoretical analyses and also validated through trace-driven prototype simulations
  1. 4.
Robust Face-Name Graph Matching for Movie Character Identification Automatic face identification of characters in movies has drawn significant research interests and led to many interesting applications. It is a challenging problem due to the huge variation in the appearance of each character. Although existing methods demonstrate promising results in clean environment, the performances are limited in complex movie scenes due to the noises generated during the face tracking and face clustering process. In this paper we present two schemes of global face-name matching based framework for robust character identification. The contributions of this work include: Complex character changes are handled by simultaneously graph partition and graph matching. Beyond existing character identification approaches, we further perform an in-depth sensitivity analysis by introducing two types of simulated noises. The proposed schemes demonstrate state-of-the-art performance on movie character identification in various genres of movies. 2012
  1. 5.
Learn to Personalized Image Search from the Photo Sharing Websites – projects 2012 Increasingly developed social sharing websites, like Flickr and Youtube, allow users to create, share, annotate and comment medias. The large-scale user-generated meta-data not only facilitate users in sharing and organizing multimedia content,but provide useful information to improve media retrieval and management. Personalized search serves as one of such
examples where the web search experience is improved by generating the returned list according to the modified user search intents. In this paper, we exploit the social annotations and propose a novel framework simultaneously considering the user and query relevance to learn to personalized image search. The basic premise is to embed the user preference and query-related
search intent into user-specific topic spaces. Since the users’ original annotation is too sparse for topic modeling, we need to enrich users’ annotation pool before user-specific topic spaces construction. The proposed framework contains two components:
2012

 

TECHNOLOGY                                           : DOT NET DOMAIN                                                       : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING

 

      

S.No TITLE ABSTRACT YEAR
An Efficient Adaptive Deadlock-Free Routing Algorithm for Torus Networks. A deadlock-free minimal routing algorithm called clue is first proposed for VCT (virtual cut-through)-switched tori. Only two virtual channels are required. One channel is applied in the deadlock-free routing algorithm for the mesh sub network based on a known base routing scheme, such as, negative-first or dimension-order routing. 2012
The Three-Tier Security Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sinks This Paper describes a three-tier general framework that permits the use of any pairwise key predistribution scheme as its basic component. The new frame- work requires two separate key pools, one for the mobile sink to access the network, and one for pairwise key establishment between the sensors. 2012
Latency Equalization as a New Network Service Primitive Multiparty interactive network applications such as teleconferencing, network gaming, and online trading are gaining popularity. In addition to end-to-end latency bounds, these applications require that the delay difference among multiple clients of the service is minimized for a good interactive experience. We propose a Latency EQualization (LEQ) service, which equalizes the perceived latency for all clients participating in an interactive network application. 2012
Efficient Error Estimating Coding: Feasibility and Applications This paper proposes the novel concept of error estimating coding (EEC). Without correcting the errors in the packet, EEC enables the receiver of the packet to estimate the packet’s bit error rate, which is perhaps the most important meta-information of a partially correct packet. 2012
Independent Directed Acyclic Graphs for Resilient Multipath Routing In this paper. Link-independent (node-independent) DAGs satisfy the property that any path from a source to the root on one DAG is link-disjoint (node-disjoint) with any path from the source to the root on the other DAG. Given a network, we develop polynomial-time algorithms to compute link-independent and node-independent DAGs. 2012
Modeling and Analysis of Communication Networks in Multicluster Systems under Spatio-Temporal Bursty Traffic Multi cluster systems have emerged as a promising infrastructure for provisioning of cost-effective high-performance computing and communications. Analytical models of communication networks in cluster systems have been widely reported. 2012
Improving End-to-End Routing Performance of Greedy Forwarding in Sensor Networks We propose a topology aware routing (TAR) protocol that efficiently encodes a network topology into a low-dimensional virtual coordinate space where hop distances between pairwise nodes are preserved. Based on precise hop distance comparison, TAR can assist greedy forwarding to find the right neighbor that is one hop closer to the destination and achieve high success ratio of packet delivery without location information. 2012
DCS: Distributed Asynchronous Clock Synchronization in Delay Tolerant Networks In this paper, we propose distributed asynchronous clock synchronization (DCS) protocol for Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). Different from existing clock synchronization protocols, the proposed DCS protocol can achieve global clock synchronization among mobile nodes within the network over asynchronous and intermittent connections with long delays. 2012
Semantic-Aware Metadata Organization Paradigm in Next-Generation File Systems This paper proposes a novel decentralized semantic-aware metadata organization, called Smart Store, which exploits semantics of files’ metadata to judiciously aggregate correlated files into semantic-aware groups by using information retrieval tools. 2012
A Greedy Link Scheduler for Wireless Networks With Gaussian Multiple-Access and Broadcast Channels In this paper, we address the problem of link scheduling in multihop wireless networks containing nodes with BC and MAC capabilities. We first propose an interference model that extends protocol interference models, originally designed for point-to-point channels, to include the possibility of BCs and MACs. 2012
Finding Cheap Routes in Prot-Driven Opportunistic Spectrum Access Networks: A Truthful Mechanism Design Approach In this paper, we explore the economic aspects of routing/relaying in a pro?t-driven opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) network. In this network, primary users lease their licensed spectrum to secondary radio (SR) providers, who in turn provide opportunistic routing/relaying service to end-users if this service is portable. 2012
MeasuRouting: A Framework for Routing Assisted Traffic Monitoring In this paper we present a theoretical framework for MeasuRouting. Furthermore, as proofs-of-concept, we present synthetic and practical monitoring applications to showcase the utility enhancement achieved with MeasuRouting. 2012
AMPLE: An Adaptive Traffic Engineering System Based on Virtual Routing Topologies In this article, we introduce AMPLE – an efficient traffic engineering and management system that performs adaptive traffic control by using multiple virtualized routing topologies. 2012
Throughput and Energy Efficiency in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks With Gaussian Channels This paper studies the bottleneck link capacity under the Gaussian channel model in strongly connected random wireless ad hoc networks, with n nodes independently and uniformly distributed in a unit square. We assume that each node is equipped with two transceivers (one for transmission and one for reception) and allow all nodes to transmit simultaneously. We draw lower and upper bounds, in terms of bottleneck link capacity, for homogeneous networks (all nodes have the same transmission power level) and propose an energy-efficient power assignment algorithm (CBPA) for heterogeneous networks (nodes may have different power levels), with a provable bottleneck link capacity guarantee of Ω(Blog(1+1/√nlog2n)), where B is the channel bandwidth. In addition, we develop a distributed implementation of CBPA with O(n2) message complexity and provide extensive simulation results 2012
Cross-Layer Analysis of the End-to-End Delay Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks Emerging applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require real-time quality-of-service (QoS) guarantees to be provided by the network. Due to the nondeterministic impacts of the wireless channel and queuing mechanisms, probabilistic analysis of QoS is essential. One important metric of QoS in WSNs is the probability distribution of the end-to-end delay. Compared to other widely used delay performance metrics such as the mean delay, delay variance, and worst-case delay, the delay distribution can be used to obtain the probability to meet a specific deadline for QoS-based communication in WSNs. To investigate the end-to-end delay distribution, in this paper, a comprehensive cross-layer analysis framework, which employs a stochastic queueing model in realistic channel environments, is developed. This framework is generic and can be parameterized for a wide variety of MAC protocols and routing protocols. Case studies with the CSMA/CA MAC protocol and an anycast protocol are conducted to illustrate how the developed framework can analytically predict the distribution of the end-to-end delay. Extensive test-bed experiments and simulations are performed to validate the accuracy of the framework for both deterministic and random deployments. Moreover, the effects of various network parameters on the distribution of end-to-end delay are investigated through the developed framework. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that provides a generic, probabilistic cross-layer analysis of end-to-end delay in WSNs. 2012
Routing for Power Minimization in the Speed Scaling Model We study network optimization that considers power minimization as an objective. Studies have shown that mechanisms such as speed scaling can significantly reduce the power consumption of telecommunication networks by matching the consumption of each network element to the amount of processing required for its carried traffic. Most existing research on speed scaling focuses on a single network element in isolation. We aim for a network-wide optimization. Specifically, we study a routing problem with the objective of provisioning guaranteed speed/bandwidth for a given demand matrix while minimizing power consumption. Optimizing the routes critically relies on the characteristic of the speed-power curve f(s), which is how power is consumed as a function of the processing speed s. If f is superadditive, we show that there is no bounded approximation in general for integral routing, i.e., each traffic demand follows a single path. This contrasts with the well-known logarithmic approximation for subadditive functions. However, for common speed-power curves such as polynomials f(s) = μsα, we are able to show a constant approximation via a simple scheme of randomized rounding. We also generalize this rounding approach to handle the case in which a nonzero startup cost σ appears in the speed-power curve, i.e., f(s) = {σ + μsα, if s >; 0; 0, if s = 0. We present an O((σ/μ)1/α)-approximation, and we discuss why coming up with an approximation ratio independent of the startup cost may be hard. Finally, we provide simulation results to validate our algorithmic approaches 2012
BloomCast: Efficient and Effective Full-Text Retrieval in Unstructured P2P Networks Efficient and effective full-text retrieval in unstructured peer-to-peer networks remains a challenge in the research community. First, it is difficult, if not impossible, for unstructured P2P systems to effectively locate items with guaranteed recall. Second, existing schemes to improve search success rate often rely on replicating a large number of item replicas across the wide area network, incurring a large amount of communication and storage costs. In this paper, we propose BloomCast, an efficient and effective full-text retrieval scheme, in unstructured P2P networks. By leveraging a hybrid P2P protocol, BloomCast replicates the items uniformly at random across the P2P networks, achieving a guaranteed recall at a communication cost of O(√N), where N is the size of the network. Furthermore, by casting Bloom Filters instead of the raw documents across the network, BloomCast significantly reduces the communication and storage costs for replication. We demonstrate the power of BloomCast design through both mathematical proof and comprehensive simulations based on the query logs from a major commercial search engine and NIST TREC WT10G data collection. Results show that BloomCast achieves an average query recall of 91 percent, which outperforms the existing WP algorithm by 18 percent, while BloomCast greatly reduces the search latency for query processing by 57 percent. 2012
  1. 18.
Load-Balancing Multipath Switching System with Flow Slice Multipath Switching systems (MPS) are intensely used in state-of-the-art core routers to provide terabit or even petabit switching capacity. One of the most intractable issues in designing MPS is how to load balance traffic across its multiple paths while not disturbing the intraflow packet orders. Previous packet-based solutions either suffer from delay penalties or lead to O(N2 ) hardware complexity, hence do not scale. Flow-based hashing algorithms also perform badly due to the heavy-tailed flow-size distribution. In this paper, we develop a novel scheme, namely, Flow Slice (FS) that cuts off each flow into flow slices at every intraflow interval larger than a slicing threshold and balances the load on a finer granularity. Based on the studies of tens of real Internet traces, we show that setting a slicing threshold of 1-4 ms, the FS scheme achieves comparative load-balancing performance to the optimal one. It also limits the probability of out-of-order packets to a negligible level (10-6) on three popular MPSes at the cost of little hardware complexity and an internal speedup up to two. These results are proven by theoretical analyses and also validated through trace-driven prototype simulations. 2012
  1. 19.
A New Cell-Counting-Based Attack Against Tor Various low-latency anonymous communication systems such as Tor and Anonymizer have been designed to provide anonymity service for users. In order to hide the communication of users, most of the anonymity systems pack the application data into equal-sized cells (e.g., 512 B for Tor, a known real-world, circuit- based, low-latency anonymous communication network). Via extensive experiments on Tor, we found that the size of IP packets in the Tor network can be very dynamic because a cell is an application concept and the IP layer may repack cells. Based on this finding, we investigate a new cell-counting-based attack against Tor, which allows the attacker to confirm anonymous communication relationship among users very quickly. In this attack, by marginally varying the number of cells in the target traffic at the malicious exit onion router, the attacker can embed a secret signal into the variation of cell counter of the target traffic. The embedded signal will be carried along with the target traffic and arrive at the malicious entry onion router. Then, an accomplice of the attacker at themalicious entry onion router will detect the embedded signal based on the received cells and confirm the communication relationship among users. We have implemented this attack against Tor, and our experimental data validate its feasibility and effectiveness. There are several unique features of this attack. First, this attack is highly efficient and can confirm very short communication sessions with only tens of cells. Second, this attack is effective, and its detection rate approaches 100% with a very low false positive rate. Third, it is possible to implement the attack in a way that appears to be very difficult for honest participants to detect (e.g., using our hopping-based signal embedding 2012
  1. 20.
corman a novel cooperative opportunistic routing scheme in mobile ad hoc networks- projects 2012 The link quality variation of wireless channels has been a challenging issue in data communications until recent explicit exploration in utilizing this characteristic. The same broadcast transmission may be perceived significantly differently, and usually independently, by receivers at different geographic locations. Furthermore, even the same stationary receiver may experience drastic link quality fluctuation over time. The combination of link-quality variation with the broadcasting nature of wireless channels has revealed a direction in the research of wireless networking, namely, cooperative communication. Research on cooperative communication started to attract interests in the community at the physical layer but more recently its importance and usability have also been realized at upper layers of the network protocol stack. In this article, we tackle the problem of opportunistic data transfer in mobile ad hoc networks. Our solution is called Cooperative Opportunistic Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (CORMAN). It is a pure network layer scheme that can be built atop off-the-shelf wireless networking
equipment. Nodes in the network use a lightweight proactive source routing protocol to determine a list of intermediate nodes that the data packets should follow en route to the destination. Here, when a data packet is broadcast by an upstream node and has happened to be received by a downstream node further along the route, it continues its way from there and thus will arrive at the destination node sooner. This is achieved through cooperative data communication at the link and network layers. This work is a powerful extension to the pioneering work of ExOR. We test CORMAN and compare it to AODV, and observe significant performance improvement in varying mobile settings.
2012
  1. 21.
 TAM: A Tiered Authentication of Multicast Protocol for Ad-Hoc Networks – projects 2012 Ad-hoc networks are becoming an effective tool for many mission critical applications such as troop coordination in a combat field, situational awareness, etc. These applications are characterized by the hostile environment that they serve in and by the multicast-style of communication traffic. Therefore, authenticating the source and ensuring the integrity of the message traffic become a fundamental requirement for the operation and management of the network. However, the limited computation and communication resources, the large scale deployment and the unguaranteed connectivity to trusted authorities make known solutions for wired and single-hop wireless networks inappropriate. This paper presents a new Tiered Authentication scheme for Multicast traffic (TAM) for large scale dense ad-hoc networks. TAM combines the advantages of the time asymmetry and the secret information asymmetry paradigms and exploits network clustering to reduce overhead and ensure scalability. Multicast traffic within a cluster employs a one-way hash function chain in order to authenticate the message source. Cross-cluster multicast traffic includes message authentication codes (MACs) that are based on a set of keys. Each cluster uses a unique subset of keys to look for its distinct combination of valid MACs in the message in order to authenticate the source. The simulation and analytical results demonstrate the performance advantage of TAM in terms of bandwidth overhead and delivery delay 2012
  1. 22.
Privacy- and Integrity-Preserving Range Queries in Sensor Networks – projects 2012 The architecture of two-tiered sensor networks, where storage nodes serve as an intermediate tier between sensors and a sink for storing data and processing queries, has been widely adopted because of the benefits of power and storage saving for sensors as well as the efficiency of query processing. However, the importance of storage nodes also makes them attractive to attackers. SafeQ, a protocol is proposed, that prevents attackers from gaining information from both sensor collected data and sink issued queries. SafeQ also allows a sink to detect compromised storage nodes when they misbehave. To preserve privacy, SafeQ uses a novel technique to encode both data and queries such that a storage node can correctly process encoded queries over encoded data without knowing their values. To preserve integrity, two schemes has been proposed, one using Merkle hash trees and another using a new data structure called neighborhood chains, to generate integrity verification information so that a sink can use this information to verify whether the result of a query contains exactly the data items that satisfy the query. 2012
A Mathematical Framework for Analyzing Adaptive Incentive Protocols in P2P Networks In peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, incentive protocol is used to encourage cooperation among end-nodes so as to deliver a scalable and robust service. However, the design and analysis of incentive protocols have been ad hoc and heuristic at best. The objective of this paper is to provide a simple yet general framework to analyze and design incentive protocols. We consider a class of incentive protocols that can learn and adapt to other end-nodes’ strategies. Based on our analytical framework, one can evaluate the expected performance gain and, more importantly, the system robustness of a given incentive protocol. To illustrate the framework, we present two adaptive learning models and three incentive policies and show the conditions in which the P2P networks may collapse and the conditions in which the P2P networks can guarantee a high degree of cooperation. We also show the connection between evaluating incentive protocol and evolutionary game theory so one can easily identify robustness characteristics of a given policy. Using our framework, one can gain the understanding on the price of altruism and system stability, as well as the correctness of the adaptive incentive policy. 2012
Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems and Their Internet Connectivity While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently identified malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) depeerings and network shutdowns. In this paper, we explore whether some ASs indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASs that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using 10 popular blacklists, plus local spam data, and extensive DNS resolutions based on the contents of the blacklists. We find that some ASs have over 80% of their routable IP address space blacklisted. Yet others account for large fractions of blacklisted IP addresses. Several ASs regularly peer with ASs associated with significant malicious activity. We also find that malicious ASs as a whole differ from benign ones in other properties not obviously related to their malicious activities, such as more frequent connectivity changes with their BGP peers. Overall, we conclude that examining malicious activity at AS granularity can unearth networks with lax security or those that harbor cybercrime. 2012
BGP Churn Evolution A Perspective From the Core The scalability limitations of BGP have been a major concern lately. An important aspect of this issue is the rate of routing updates (churn) that BGP routers must process. This paper presents an analysis of the evolution of churn in four networks at the backbone of the Internet over a period of seven years and eight months, using BGP update traces from the RouteViews project. The churn rate varies widely over time and between networks. Instead of descriptive “black-box” statistical analysis, we take an exploratory data analysis approach attempting to understand the reasons behind major observed characteristics of the churn time series. We find that duplicate announcements are a major churn contributor, responsible for most large spikes. Remaining spikes are mostly caused by routing incidents that affect a large number of prefixes simultaneously. More long-term intense periods of churn, on the other hand, are caused by misconfigurations or other special events at or close to the monitored autonomous system (AS). After filtering pathologies and effects that are not related to the long-term evolution of churn, we analyze the remaining “baseline” churn and find that it is increasing at a rate that is similar to the growth of the number of ASs. 2012
Congestion-Dependent Pricing and Forward Contracts for Complementary Segments of a Communication Network Congestion-dependent pricing is a form of traffic management that ensures the efficient allocation of bandwidth between users and applications. As the unpredictability of congestion prices creates revenue uncertainty for network providers and cost uncertainty for users, it has been suggested that forward contracts could be used to manage these risks. We develop a novel game-theoretic model of a multiprovider communication network with two complementary segments and investigate whether forward contracts would be adopted by service providers. Service on the upstream segment is provided by a single Internet service provider (ISP) and priced dynamically to maximize profit, while several smaller ISPs sell connectivity on the downstream network segment, with the advance possibility of entering into forward contracts with their users for some of their capacity. We show that the equilibrium forward contracting volumes are necessarily asymmetric, with one downstream provider entering into fewer forward contracts than the other competitors, thus ensuring a high subsequent downstream price level. In practice, network providers will choose the extent of forward contracting strategically based not only on their risk tolerance, but also on the market structure in the interprovider network and their peers’ actions. 2012
DAC Generic and Automatic Address Configuration for Data Center Networks Data center networks encode locality and topology information into their server and switch addresses for performance and routing purposes. For this reason, the traditional address configuration protocols such as DHCP require a huge amount of manual input, leaving them error-prone. In this paper, we present DAC, a generic and automatic Data center Address Configuration system. With an automatically generated blueprint that defines the connections of servers and switches labeled by logical IDs, e.g., IP addresses, DAC first learns the physical topology labeled by device IDs, e.g., MAC addresses. Then, at the core of DAC is its device-to-logical ID mapping and malfunction detection. DAC makes an innovation in abstracting the device-to-logical ID mapping to the graph isomorphism problem and solves it with low time complexity by leveraging the attributes of data center network topologies. Its malfunction detection scheme detects errors such as device and link failures and miswirings, including the most difficult case where miswirings do not cause any node degree change. We have evaluated DAC via simulation, implementation, and experiments. Our simulation results show that DAC can accurately find all the hardest-to-detect malfunctions and can autoconfigure a large data center with 3.8 million devices in 46 s. In our implementation, we successfully autoconfigure a small 64-server BCube network within 300 ms and show that DAC is a viable solution for data center autoconfiguration. 2012
Distributed -Optimal User Association and Cell Load Balancing in Wireless Networks In this paper, we develop a framework for user association in infrastructure-based wireless networks, specifically focused on flow-level cell load balancing under spatially inhomogeneous traffic distributions. Our work encompasses several different user association policies: rate-optimal, throughput-optimal, delay-optimal, and load-equalizing, which we collectively denote α-optimal user association. We prove that the optimal load vector ρ* that minimizes a generalized system performance function is the fixed point of a certain mapping. Based on this mapping, we propose and analyze an iterative distributed user association policy that adapts to spatial traffic loads and converges to a globally optimal allocation. We then address admission control policies for the case where the system is overloaded. For an appropriate system-level cost function, the optimal admission control policy blocks all flows at cells edges. However, providing a minimum level of connectivity to all spatial locations might be desirable. To this end, a location-dependent random blocking and user association policy are proposed. 2012
Efficient Error Estimating Coding Feasibility and Applications Motivated by recent emerging systems that can leverage partially correct packets in wireless networks, this paper proposes the novel concept of error estimating coding (EEC). Without correcting the errors in the packet, EEC enables the receiver of the packet to estimate the packet’s bit error rate, which is perhaps the most important meta-information of a partially correct packet. Our EEC design provides provable estimation quality with rather low redundancy and computational overhead. To demonstrate the utility of EEC, we exploit and implement EEC in two wireless network applications, Wi-Fi rate adaptation and real-time video streaming. Our real-world experiments show that these applications can significantly benefit from EEC. 2012
Exploiting Data Fusion to Improve the Coverage of Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been increasingly available for critical applications such as security surveillance and environmental monitoring. An important performance measure of such applications is sensing coverage that characterizes how well a sensing field is monitored by a network. Although advanced collaborative signal processing algorithms have been adopted by many existing WSNs, most previous analytical studies on sensing coverage are conducted based on overly simplistic sensing models (e.g., the disc model) that do not capture the stochastic nature of sensing. In this paper, we attempt to bridge this gap by exploring the fundamental limits of coverage based on stochastic data fusion models that fuse noisy measurements of multiple sensors. We derive the scaling laws between coverage, network density, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We show that data fusion can significantly improve sensing coverage by exploiting the collaboration among sensors when several physical properties of the target signal are known. In particular, for signal path loss exponent of (typically between 2.0 and 5.0), ρf = O(ρd1-1/k, where ρf and ρd are the densities of uniformly deployed sensors that achieve full coverage under the fusion and disc models, respectively. Moreover, data fusion can also reduce network density for regularly deployed networks and mobile networks where mobile sensors can relocate to fill coverage holes. Our results help understand the limitations of the previous analytical results based on the disc model and provide key insights into the design of WSNs that adopt data fusion algorithms. Our analyses are verified through extensive simulations based on both synthetic data sets and data traces collected in a real deployment for vehicle detection. 2012
Finding Cheap Routes in Profit-Driven Opportunistic Spectrum Access Networks A Truthful Mechanism Design Approach In this paper, we explore the economic aspects of routing/relaying in a profit-driven opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) network. In this network, primary users lease their licensed spectrum to secondary radio (SR) providers, who in turn provide opportunistic routing/relaying service to end-users if this service is profitable, i.e., if the payment offered by the end-user (a.k.a. the price) exceeds the SR’s relaying spectrum cost. This cost is considered private information known only to SRs. Therefore, the end-user has to rely on costs reported by SRs to determine his routing and payment strategy. The challenge comes from the selfish nature of SRs; an SR may exaggerate his cost to achieve greater profit. To give incentive to an SR to report the true cost, the payment must typically be higher than the actual cost. However, from the end-user’s perspective, “overpayment” should be avoided as much as possible. Therefore, we are interested in the “optimal” route selection and payment determination mechanism that minimizes the price of the selected route while simultaneously guaranteeing truthful cost reporting by SRs. We formulate this problem as finding the least-priced path (LPP), and we investigate it without and with link capacity constraints. In the former case, polynomial-time algorithm is developed to find LPP and calculate its truthful price. In the latter case, we show that calculating the truthful price of the LPP is in general computationally infeasible. Consequently, we consider a suboptimal but computationally feasible approximate solution, which we refer to as truthful low-priced path (LOPP) routing. A polynomial-time algorithm is proposed to find the LOPP and efficiently calculate its truthful price. A payment materialization algorithm is also developed to guarantee truthful capacity reporting by SRs. The effectiveness of our algorithms in terms of price saving is verified through extensive simulations. 2012
IEEE 802.11 Saturation Throughput Analysis in the Presence of Hidden Terminals Due to its usefulness and wide deployment, IEEE 802.11 has been the subject of numerous studies, but still lacks a complete analytical model. Hidden terminals are common in IEEE 802.11 and cause the degradation of throughput. Despite the importance of the hidden terminal problem, there have been a relatively small number of studies that consider the effect of hidden terminals on IEEE 802.11 throughput, and many are not accurate for a wide range of conditions. In this paper, we present an accurate new analytical saturation throughput model for the infrastructure case of IEEE 802.11 in the presence of hidden terminals. Simulation results show that our model is accurate in a wide variety of cases. 2012
MeasuRouting A Framework for Routing Assisted Traffic Monitoring Monitoring transit traffic at one or more points in a network is of interest to network operators for reasons of traffic accounting, debugging or troubleshooting, forensics, and traffic engineering. Previous research in the area has focused on deriving a placement of monitors across the network toward the end of maximizing the monitoring utility of the network operator for a given traffic routing. However, both traffic characteristics and measurement objectives can dynamically change over time, rendering a previously optimal placement of monitors suboptimal. It is not feasible to dynamically redeploy/reconfigure measurement infrastructure to cater to such evolving measurement requirements. We address this problem by strategically routing traffic subpopulations over fixed monitors. We refer to this approach as MeasuRouting. The main challenge for MeasuRouting is to work within the constraints of existing intradomain traffic engineering operations that are geared for efficiently utilizing bandwidth resources, or meeting quality-of-service (QoS) constraints, or both. A fundamental feature of intradomain routing, which makes MeasuRouting feasible, is that intradomain routing is often specified for aggregate flows. MeasuRouting can therefore differentially route components of an aggregate flow while ensuring that the aggregate placement is compliant to original traffic engineering objectives. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for MeasuRouting. Furthermore, as proofs of concept, we present synthetic and practical monitoring applications to showcase the utility enhancement achieved with MeasuRouting. 2012
Obtaining Provably Legitimate Internet Topologies What topologies should be used to evaluate protocols for interdomain routing? Using the most current Internet topology is not practical since its size is prohibitive for detailed, packet-level interdomain simulations. Besides being of moderate size, the topology should be policy-aware, that is, it needs to represent business relationships between adjacent nodes (that represent autonomous systems). In this paper, we address this issue by providing a framework to generate small, realistic, and policy-aware topologies. We propose HBR, a novel sampling method, which exploits the inherent hierarchy of the policy-aware Internet topology. We formally prove that our approach generates connected and legitimate topologies, which are compatible with the policy-based routing conventions and rules. Using simulations, we show that HBR generates topologies that: 1) maintain the graph properties of the real topology; 2) provide reasonably realistic interdomain simulation results while reducing the computational complexity by several orders of magnitude as compared to the initial topology. Our approach provides a permanent solution to the problem of interdomain routing evaluations: Given a more accurate and complete topology, HBR can generate better small topologies in the future. 2012
On the Impact of TCP and Per-Flow Scheduling on Internet Performance Internet performance is tightly related to the properties of TCP and UDP protocols, jointly responsible for the delivery of the great majority of Internet traffic. It is well understood how these protocols behave under FIFO queuing and what are the network congestion effects. However, no comprehensive analysis is available when flow-aware mechanisms such as per-flow scheduling and dropping policies are deployed. Previous simulation and experimental results leave a number of unanswered questions. In the paper, we tackle this issue by modeling via a set of fluid non-linear ODEs the instantaneous throughput and the buffer occupancy of N long-lived TCP sources under three per-flow scheduling disciplines (Fair Queuing, Longest Queue First, Shortest Queue First) and with longest queue drop buffer management. We study the system evolution and analytically characterize the stationary regime: closed-form expressions are derived for the stationary throughput/sending rate and buffer occupancy which give a thorough understanding of short/long-term fairness for TCP traffic. Similarly, we provide the characterization of the loss rate experienced by UDP flows in presence of TCP traffic. As a result, the analysis allows to quantify benefits and drawbacks related to the deployment of flow-aware scheduling mechanisms in different networking contexts. The model accuracy is confirmed by a set of ns2 simulations and by the evaluation of the three scheduling disciplines in a real implementation in the Linux kernel. 2012
Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Multiple-Primary-User Environments Under the Packet Collision Constraint Cognitive radio (CR) technology has great potential to alleviate spectrum scarcity in wireless communications. It allows secondary users (SUs) to opportunistically access spectrum licensed by primary users (PUs) while protecting PU activity. The protection of the PUs is central to the adoption of this technology since no PU would accommodate SU access to its own detriment. In this paper, we consider an SU that must protect multiple PUs simultaneously. We focus on the PU packet collision probability as the protection metric. The PUs are unslotted and may have different idle/busy time distributions and protection requirements. Under general idle time distributions, we determine the form of the SU optimal access policy and identify two special cases for which the computation of the optimal policy is significantly reduced. We also present a simple algorithm to determine these policies using principles of convex optimization theory. We then derive the optimal policy for the same system when an SU has extra “side information” on PU activity. We evaluate the performance of these policies through simulation. 2012
Performance of PCN-Based Admission Control Under Challenging Conditions Precongestion notification (PCN) is a packet-marking technique for IP networks to notify egress nodes of a so-called PCN domain whether the traffic rate on some links exceeds certain configurable bounds. This feedback is used by decision points for admission control (AC) to block new flows when the traffic load is already high. PCN-based AC is simpler than other AC methods because interior routers do not need to keep per-flow states. Therefore, it is currently being standardized by the IETF. We discuss various realization options and analyze their performance in the presence of flash crowds or with multipath routing by means of simulation and mathematical modeling. Such situations can be aggravated by insufficient flow aggregation, long round-trip times, on/off traffic, delayed media, inappropriate marker configuration, and smoothed feedback 2012
Routing for Power Minimization in the Speed Scaling Model We study network optimization that considers power minimization as an objective. Studies have shown that mechanisms such as speed scaling can significantly reduce the power consumption of telecommunication networks by matching the consumption of each network element to the amount of processing required for its carried traffic. Most existing research on speed scaling focuses on a single network element in isolation. We aim for a network-wide optimization. Specifically, we study a routing problem with the objective of provisioning guaranteed speed/bandwidth for a given demand matrix while minimizing power consumption. Optimizing the routes critically relies on the characteristic of the speed-power curve f(s), which is how power is consumed as a function of the processing speed s. If f is superadditive, we show that there is no bounded approximation in general for integral routing, i.e., each traffic demand follows a single path. This contrasts with the well-known logarithmic approximation for subadditive functions. However, for common speed-power curves such as polynomials f(s) = μsα, we are able to show a constant approximation via a simple scheme of randomized rounding. We also generalize this rounding approach to handle the case in which a nonzero startup cost σ appears in the speed-power curve, i.e., f(s) = {σ + μsα, if s >; 0; 0, if s = 0. We present an O((σ/μ)1/α)-approximation, and we discuss why coming up with an approximation ratio independent of the startup cost may be hard. Finally, we provide simulation results to validate our algorithmic approaches. 2012
Scaffold Filling under the Breakpoint and Related Distances Motivated by the trend of genome sequencing without completing the sequence of the whole genomes, a problem on filling an incomplete multichromosomal genome (or scaffold) I with respect to a complete target genome G was studied. The objective is to minimize the resulting genomic distance between I’ and G, where I’ is the corresponding filled scaffold. We call this problem the one-sided scaffold filling problem. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study for the scaffold filling problem under the breakpoint distance and its variants, for both unichromosomal and multichromosomal genomes (with and without gene repetitions). When the input genome contains no gene repetition (i.e., is a fragment of a permutation), we show that the two-sided scaffold filling problem (i.e., G is also incomplete) is polynomially solvable for unichromosomal genomes under the breakpoint distance and for multichromosomal genomes under the genomic (or DCJ-Double-Cut-and-Join) distance. However, when the input genome contains some repeated genes, even the one-sided scaffold filling problem becomes NP-complete when the similarity measure is the maximum number of adjacencies between two sequences. For this problem, we also present efficient constant-factor approximation algorithms: factor-2 for the general case and factor 1.33 for the one-sided case. 2012
Scalable Video Multicast With Adaptive Modulation and Coding in Broadband Wireless Data Systems Future mobile broadband networks are characterized with high data rate and improved coverage, which will enable real-time video multicast and broadcast services. Scalable video coding (SVC), combined with adaptive modulation and coding schemes (MCS) and wireless multicast, provides an excellent solution for streaming video to heterogeneous wireless devices. By choosing different MCSs for different video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions while maintaining basic video quality for users in bad channel conditions. A key issue to apply SVC to wireless multicast streaming is to choose appropriate MCS for each video layer and to determine the optimal resource allocation among multiple video sessions. We formulate this problem as total utility maximization, subject to the constraint of available radio resources. We prove that the formulated problem is NP-hard and propose an optimal, two-step dynamic programming solution with pseudo-polynomial time complexity. Simulation results show that our algorithm offers significant improvement on the video quality over a naive algorithm and an adapted greedy algorithm, especially in the scenarios with multiple real video sequences and limited radio resources. 2012
SLAW Self-Similar Least-Action Human Walk Many empirical studies of human walks have reported that there exist fundamental statistical features commonly appearing in mobility traces taken in various mobility settings. These include: 1) heavy-tail flight and pause-time distributions; 2) heterogeneously bounded mobility areas of individuals; and 3) truncated power-law intercontact times. This paper reports two additional such features: a) The destinations of people (or we say waypoints) are dispersed in a self-similar manner; and b) people are more likely to choose a destination closer to its current waypoint. These features are known to be influential to the performance of human-assisted mobility networks. The main contribution of this paper is to present a mobility model called Self-similar Least-Action Walk (SLAW) that can produce synthetic mobility traces containing all the five statistical features in various mobility settings including user-created virtual ones for which no empirical information is available. Creating synthetic traces for virtual environments is important for the performance evaluation of mobile networks as network designers test their networks in many diverse network settings. A performance study of mobile routing protocols on top of synthetic traces created by SLAW shows that SLAW brings out the unique performance features of various routing protocols. 2012
Throughput and Energy Efficiency in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks With Gaussian Channels This paper studies the bottleneck link capacity under the Gaussian channel model in strongly connected random wireless ad hoc networks, with n nodes independently and uniformly distributed in a unit square. We assume that each node is equipped with two transceivers (one for transmission and one for reception) and allow all nodes to transmit simultaneously. We draw lower and upper bounds, in terms of bottleneck link capacity, for homogeneous networks (all nodes have the same transmission power level) and propose an energy-efficient power assignment algorithm (CBPA) for heterogeneous networks (nodes may have different power levels), with a provable bottleneck link capacity guarantee of Ω(Blog(1+1/√nlog2n)), where B is the channel bandwidth. In addition, we develop a distributed implementation of CBPA with O(n2) message complexity and provide extensive simulation results. 2012
Towards a Better Understanding of Large-Scale Network Models Connectivity and capacity are two fundamental properties of wireless multihop networks. The scalability of these properties has been a primary concern for which asymptotic analysis is a useful tool. Three related but logically distinct network models are often considered in asymptotic analyses, viz. the dense network model, the extended network model, and the infinite network model, which consider respectively a network deployed in a fixed finite area with a sufficiently large node density, a network deployed in a sufficiently large area with a fixed node density, and a network deployed in with a sufficiently large node density. The infinite network model originated from continuum percolation theory and asymptotic results obtained from the infinite network model have often been applied to the dense and extended networks. In this paper, through two case studies related to network connectivity on the expected number of isolated nodes and on the vanishing of components of finite order respectively, we demonstrate some subtle but important differences between the infinite network model and the dense and extended network models. Therefore, extra scrutiny has to be used in order for the results obtained from the infinite network model to be applicable to the dense and extended network models. Asymptotic results are also obtained on the expected number of isolated nodes, the vanishingly small impact of the boundary effect on the number of isolated nodes, and the vanishing of components of finite order in the dense and extended network models using a generic random connection model. 2012
44 Tracking Low-Precision Clocks With Time-Varying Drifts Using Kalman Filtering Clock synchronization is essential for a large number of applications ranging from performance measurements in wired networks to data fusion in sensor networks. Existing techniques are either limited to undesirable accuracy or rely on specific hardware characteristics that may not be available in certain applications. In this paper, we examine the clock synchronization problem in networks where nodes lack the high-accuracy oscillators or programmable network interfaces some previous protocols depend on. This paper derives a general model for clock offset and skew and demonstrates its application to real clock oscillators. We design an efficient algorithm based on this model to achieve high synchronization accuracy. This algorithm applies the Kalman filter to track the clock offset and skew. We demonstrate the performance advantages of our schemes through extensive simulations and real clock oscillator measurements 2012
45 ViNEYard Virtual Network Embedding Algorithms With Coordinated Node and Link Mapping Network virtualization allows multiple heterogeneous virtual networks (VNs) to coexist on a shared infrastructure. Efficient mapping of virtual nodes and virtual links of a VN request onto substrate network resources, also known as the VN embedding problem, is the first step toward enabling such multiplicity. Since this problem is known to be NP-hard, previous research focused on designing heuristic-based algorithms that had clear separation between the node mapping and the link mapping phases. In this paper, we present ViNEYard-a collection of VN embedding algorithms that leverage better coordination between the two phases. We formulate the VN embedding problem as a mixed integer program through substrate network augmentation. We then relax the integer constraints to obtain a linear program and devise two online VN embedding algorithms D-ViNE and R-ViNE using deterministic and randomized rounding techniques, respectively. We also present a generalized window-based VN embedding algorithm (WiNE) to evaluate the effect of lookahead on VN embedding. Our simulation experiments on a large mix of VN requests show that the proposed algorithms increase the acceptances. 2012

 

TECHNOLOGY                               : DOT NET DOMAIN                                           : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORK SECURITY
S.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
Extending Attack Graph-Based Security Metrics and Aggregating Their Application The attack graph is an abstraction that reveals the ways an attacker can leverage vulnerabilities in a network to violate a security policy. When used with attack graph-based security metrics, the attack graph may be used to quantitatively assess security relevant aspects of a network. 2012
Secured Trust: A Dynamic Trust Computation Model for Secured Communication in Multi agent Systems We present in this paper a dynamic trust computation model called “SecuredTrust.” In this paper, we first analyze the different factors related to evaluating the trust of an agent and then propose a comprehensive quantitative model for measuring such trust. We also propose a novel load-balancing algorithm based on the different factors defined in our model. 2012
Persuasive Cued Click-Points: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Knowledge-Based Authentication Mechanism This paper presents an integrated evaluation of the Persuasive Cued Click-Points graphical password scheme, including usability and security evaluations, and implementation considerations. An important usability goal for knowledge-based authentication systems is to support users in selecting passwords of higher security, in the sense of being from an expanded effective security space. 2012
Detecting Spam Zombies by Monitoring Outgoing Messages We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates. 2012
Iterative Trust and Reputation Management Using Belief Propagation In this paper, we introduce the first application of the belief propagation algorithm in the design and evaluation of trust and reputation management systems. We approach the reputation management problem as an inference problem and describe it as computing marginal likelihood distributions from complicated global functions of many variables. 2012
Data-Provenance Verification For Secure Hosts Malicious software typically resides stealthily on a user’s computer and interacts with the user’s computing resources. Our goal in this work is to improve the trustworthiness of a host and its system data. Specifically, we provide a new mechanism that ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents adversaries from 53utilizing host resources. 2012
Risk-Aware Mitigation for MANET Routing Attacks In this paper, we propose a risk-aware response mechanism to systematically cope with the identified routing attacks. Our risk-aware approach is based on an extended Dempster-Shafer mathematical theory of evidence introducing a notion of importance factors. 2012
Characterizing the Efficacy of the NRL Network Pump in Mitigating Covert Timing Channels The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Network Pump, or Pump, is a standard for mitigating covert channels that arise in a multilevel secure (MLS) system when a high user (HU) sends acknowledgements to a low user (LU). The issue here is that HU can encode information in the “timings” of the acknowledgements. 2012
Detecting and Resolving Firewall Policy Anomalies The advent of emerging computing technologies such as service-oriented architecture and cloud computing has enabled us to perform business services more efficiently and effectively. However, we still suffer from unintended security leakages by unauthorized actions in business services 2012
Revisiting Defenses against Large-Scale Online Password Guessing Attacks

Brute force and dictionary attacks on password-only remote login services are now widespread and ever increasing.Enabling convenient login for legitimate users while preventing such attacks is a difficult problem. Automated Turing Tests (ATTs) continue to be an effective, easy-to-deploy approach to identify automated malicious login attempts with reasonable cost of inconvenience to users. In this paper, we discuss the inadequacy of existing and proposed login protocols designed to address large scale online dictionary attacks (e.g., from a botnet of hundreds of thousands of nodes). We propose a new Password Guessing Resistant Protocol (PGRP), derived upon revisiting prior proposals designed to restrict such attacks. While PGRP limits the total number of login attempts from unknown remote hosts to as low as a single attempt per username, legitimate users in most cases (e.g., when attempts are made from known, frequently-used machines) can make several failed login attempts before being challenged with an ATT. We analyze the performance of PGRP with two real-world data sets and find it more promising than existing proposals.2012 Enhanced Privacy ID: A Direct Anonymous Attestation Scheme with Enhanced Revocation Capabilities  2012 Dotnet Network Security

Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) is a scheme that enables the remote authentication of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) while preserving the user’s privacy. A TPM can prove to a remote party that it is a valid TPM without revealing its identity and without linkability. In the DAA scheme, a TPM can be revoked only if the DAA private key in the hardware has been extracted and published widely so that verifiers obtain the corrupted private key. If the unlinkability requirement is relaxed, a TPM suspected of being compromised can be revoked even if the private key is not known. However, with the full unlinkability requirement intact, if a TPM has been compromised but its private key has not been distributed to verifiers, the TPM cannot be revoked. Furthermore, a TPM cannot be revoked from the issuer, if the TPM is found to be compromised after the DAA issuing has occurred. In this paper, we present a new DAA scheme called Enhanced Privacy ID (EPID) scheme that addresses the above limitations. While still providing unlinkability, our scheme provides a method to revoke a TPM even if the TPM private key is unknown. This expanded revocation property makes the scheme useful for other applications such as for driver’s license. Our EPID scheme is efficient and provably secure in the same security model as DAA, i.e., in the random oracle model under the strong RSA assumption and the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption.

2012

  1. 12.

Design and Implementation of TARF: A Trust-Aware Routing Framework for WSNsThe multi-hop routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) offers little protection against identity deception through replaying routing information. An adversary can exploit this defect to launch various harmful or even devastating attacks against the routing protocols, including sinkhole attacks, wormhole attacks and Sybil attacks. The situation is further aggravated by mobile and harsh network conditions. Traditional cryptographic techniques or efforts at developing trust-aware routing protocols do not effectively address this severe problem. To secure the WSNs against adversaries misdirecting the multi-hop routing, we have designed and implemented TARF, a robust trust-aware routing framework for dynamic WSNs. Without tight time synchronization or known geographic information, TARF provides trustworthy and energy-efficient route. Most importantly, TARF proves effective against those harmful attacks developed out of identity deception; the resilience of TARF is verified through extensive evaluation with both simulation and empirical experiments on large-scale WSNs under various scenarios including mobile and RF-shielding network conditions.2012

  1. 13.

Design and Implementation of TARF: A Trust-Aware Routing Framework for WSNs- projects 2012  Dependable and Secure ComputingThe multihop routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) offers little protection against identity deception through replaying routing information. An adversary can exploit this defect to launch various harmful or even devastating attacks against the routing protocols, including sinkhole attacks, wormhole attacks, and Sybil attacks. The situation is further aggravated by mobile and harsh network conditions. Traditional cryptographic techniques or efforts at developing trust-aware routing protocols do not effectively address this severe problem. To secure the WSNs against adversaries misdirecting the multihop routing, we have designed and implemented TARF, a robust trust-aware routing framework for dynamic WSNs. Without tight time synchronization or known geographic information, TARF provides trustworthy and energy-efficient route. Most importantly, TARF proves effective against those harmful attacks developed out of identity deception; the resilience of TARF is verified through extensive evaluation with both simulation and empirical experiments on large-scale WSNs under various scenarios including mobile and RF-shielding network conditions. Further, we have implemented a low-overhead TARF module in TinyOS; as demonstrated, this implementation can be incorporated into existing routing protocols with the least effort. Based on TARF, we also demonstrated a proof-of-concept mobile target detection application that functions well against an antidetection mechanism.2012

  1. 14.

Fast Zone-Based Node Compromise Detection and Revocation in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Sequential Hypothesis Testing- projects 2012Due to the unattended nature of wireless sensor networks, an adversary can physically capture and compromise sensor nodes and then mount a variety of attacks with the compromised nodes. To minimize the damage incurred by the compromised nodes, the system should detect and revoke them as soon as possible. To meet this need, researchers have recently proposed a variety of node compromise detection schemes in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. For example, reputation-based trust management schemes identify malicious nodes but do not revoke them due to the risk of false positives. Similarly, software-attestation schemes detect the subverted software modules of compromised nodes. However, they require each sensor node to be attested periodically, thus incurring substantial overhead. To mitigate the limitations of the existing schemes, we propose a zone-based node compromise detection and revocation scheme in wireless sensor networks. The main idea behind our scheme is to use sequential hypothesis testing to detect suspect regions in which compromised nodes are likely placed. In these suspect regions, the network operator performs software attestation against sensor nodes, leading to the detection and revocation of the compromised nodes. Through quantitative analysis and simulation experiments, we show that the proposed scheme detects the compromised nodes with a small number of samples while reducing false positive and negative rates, even if a substantial fraction of the nodes in the zone are compromised. Additionally, we model the detection problem using a game theoretic analysis, derive the optimal strategies for the attacker and the defender, and show that the attacker’s gain from node compromise is greatly limited by the defender when both the attacker and the defender follow their optimal strategies2012

  1. 15.

Bounding the Impact of Unbounded Attacks in StabilizationSelf-stabilization is a versatile approach to fault-tolerance since it permits a distributed system to recover from any transient fault that arbitrarily corrupts the contents of all memories in the system. Byzantine tolerance is an attractive feature of distributed systems that permits to cope with arbitrary malicious behaviors. Combining these two properties proved difficult: it is impossible to contain the spatial impact of Byzantine nodes in a self-stabilizing context for global tasks such as tree orientation and tree construction. We present and illustrate a new concept of Byzantine containment in stabilization. Strong Stabilization enables to contain the impact of Byzantine nodes if they actually perform too many Byzantine actions. Derived impossibility results for strong stabilization and present strongly stabilizing protocols for tree orientation and tree construction that are optimal with respect to the number of Byzantine nodes that can be tolerated in a self-stabilizing context.2012

  1. 16.

Balancing the Tradeoffs between Query Delay and Data Availability in MANETs – projects 2012In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), nodes move freely and link/node failures are common, which leads to frequent network partitions. When a network partition occurs, mobile nodes in one partition are not able to access data hosted by nodes in other partitions, and hence significantly degrade the performance of data access. To deal with this problem, we apply data 63replication techniques. Existing data replication solutions in both wired and wireless networks aim at either reducing the query delay or improving the data availability, but not both. As both metrics are important for mobile nodes, we propose schemes to balance the tradeoffs between data availability and query delay under different system settings and requirements. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed schemes can achieve a balance between these two metrics and provide satisfying system performance.2012 A Stochastic Model of Multivirus DynamicsUnderstanding the spreading dynamics of computer viruses (worms, attacks) is an important research problem, and has received much attention from the communities of both computer security and statistical physics. However, previous studies have mainly focused on single-virus spreading dynamics. In this paper, we study multivirus spreading dynamics, where multiple viruses attempt to infect computers while possibly combating against each other because, for example, they are controlled by multiple botmasters. Specifically, we propose and analyze a general model (and its two special cases) of multivirus spreading dynamics in arbitrary networks (i.e., we do not make any restriction on network topologies), where the viruses may or may not coreside on computers. Our model offers analytical results for addressing questions such as: What are the sufficient conditions (also known as epidemic thresholds) under which the multiple viruses will die out? What if some viruses can “rob” others? What characteristics does the multivirus epidemic dynamics exhibit when the viruses are (approximately) equally powerful? The analytical results make a fundamental connection between two types of factors: defense capability and network connectivity. This allows us to draw various insights that can be used to guide security defense.

 

2012 A Taxonomy of Buffer Overflow CharacteristicsSignificant work on vulnerabilities focuses on buffer overflows, in which data exceeding the bounds of an array is loaded into the array. The loading continues past the array boundary, causing variables and state information located adjacent to the array to change. As the process is not programmed to check for these additional changes, the process acts incorrectly. The incorrect action often places the system in a nonsecure state. This work develops a taxonomy of buffer overflow vulnerabilities based upon characteristics, or preconditions that must hold for an exploitable buffer overflow to exist. We analyze several software and hardware countermeasures to validate the approach. We then discuss alternate approaches to ameliorating this vulnerability.2012 Compiler-Directed Soft Error Mitigation for Embedded SystemsThe protection of processor-based systems to mitigate the harmful effect of transient faults (soft errors) is gaining importance as technology shrinks. At the same time, for large segments of embedded markets, parameters like cost and performance continue to be as important as reliability. This paper presents a compiler-based methodology for facilitating the design of fault-tolerant embedded systems. The methodology is supported by an infrastructure that permits to easily combine hardware/software soft errors mitigation techniques in order to best satisfy both usual design constraints and dependability requirements. It is based on a generic microprocessor architecture that facilitates the implementation of software-based techniques, providing a uniform isolated-from-target hardening core that allows the automatic generation of protected source code (hardened code). Two case studies are presented. In the first one, several software-based mitigation techniques are implemented and evaluated showing the flexibility of the infrastructure. In the second one, a customized fault tolerant embedded system is designed by combining selective protection on both hardware and software. Several trade-offs among performance, code size, reliability, and hardware costs have been explored. Results show the applicability of the approach. Among the developed software-based mitigation techniques, a novel selective version of the well known SWIFT-R is presented.2012 Conditional Diagnosability of Augmented Cubes under the PMC ModelProcessor fault diagnosis has played an important role in measuring the reliability of a multiprocessor system, and the diagnosability of many well-known multiprocessor systems has been widely investigated. The conditional diagnosability is a novel measure of diagnosability by adding an additional condition that any faulty set cannot contain all the neighbors of any node in a system. In this paper, we evaluate the conditional diagnosability for augmented cubes under the PMC model. We show that the conditional diagnosability of an n-dimensional augmented cube is 8n – 27 for n≥5.2012 Data-Provenance Verification For Secure HostsMalicious software typically resides stealthily on a user’s computer and interacts with the user’s computing resources. Our goal in this work is to improve the trustworthiness of a host and its system data. Specifically, we provide a new mechanism that ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents adversaries from utilizing host resources. We define data-provenance integrity as the security property stating that the source where a piece of data is generated cannot be spoofed or tampered with. We describe a cryptographic provenance verification approach for ensuring system properties and system-data integrity at kernel-level. Its two concrete applications are demonstrated in the keystroke integrity verification and malicious traffic detection. Specifically, we first design and implement an efficient cryptographic protocol that enforces keystroke integrity by utilizing on-chip Trusted Computing Platform (TPM). The protocol prevents the forgery of fake key events by malware under reasonable assumptions. Then, we demonstrate our provenance verification approach by realizing a lightweight framework for restricting outbound malware traffic. This traffic-monitoring framework helps identify network activities of stealthy malware, and lends itself to a powerful personal firewall for examining all outbound traffic of a host that cannot be bypassed.2012 Detecting and Resolving Firewall Policy AnomaliesThe advent of emerging computing technologies such as service-oriented architecture and cloud computing has enabled us to perform business services more efficiently and effectively. However, we still suffer from unintended security leakages by unauthorized actions in business services. Firewalls are the most widely deployed security mechanism to ensure the security of private networks in most businesses and institutions. The effectiveness of security protection provided by a firewall mainly depends on the quality of policy configured in the firewall. Unfortunately, designing and managing firewall policies are often error prone due to the complex nature of firewall configurations as well as the lack of systematic analysis mechanisms and tools. In this paper, we represent an innovative policy anomaly management framework for firewalls, adopting a rule-based segmentation technique to identify policy anomalies and derive effective anomaly resolutions. In particular, we articulate a grid-based representation technique, providing an intuitive cognitive sense about policy anomaly. We also discuss a proof-of-concept implementation of a visualization-based firewall policy analysis tool called Firewall Anomaly Management Environment (FAME). In addition, we demonstrate how efficiently our approach can discover and resolve anomalies in firewall policies through rigorous experiments2012 Enforcing Mandatory Access Control in Commodity OS to Disable MalwareEnforcing a practical Mandatory Access Control (MAC) in a commercial operating system to tackle malware problem is a grand challenge but also a promising approach. The firmest barriers to apply MAC to defeat malware programs are the incompatible and unusable problems in existing MAC systems. To address these issues, we manually analyze 2,600 malware samples one by one and two types of MAC enforced operating systems, and then design a novel MAC enforcement approach, named Tracer, which incorporates intrusion detection and tracing in a commercial operating system. The approach conceptually consists of three actions: detecting, tracing, and restricting suspected intruders. One novelty is that it leverages light-weight intrusion detection and tracing techniques to automate security label configuration that is widely acknowledged as a tough issue when applying a MAC system in practice. The other is that, rather than restricting information flow as a traditional MAC does, it traces intruders and restricts only their critical malware behaviors, where intruders represent processes and executables that are potential agents of a remote attacker. Our prototyping and experiments on Windows show that Tracer can effectively defeat all malware samples tested via blocking malware behaviors while not causing a significant compatibility problem2012 Extending Attack Graph-Based Security Metrics and Aggregating Their ApplicationThe attack graph is an abstraction that reveals the ways an attacker can leverage vulnerabilities in a network to violate a security policy. When used with attack graph-based security metrics, the attack graph may be used to quantitatively assess security-relevant aspects of a network. The Shortest Path metric, the Number of Paths metric, and the Mean of Path Lengths metric are three attack graph-based security metrics that can extract security-relevant information. However, one’s usage of these metrics can lead to misleading results. The Shortest Path metric and the Mean of Path Lengths metric fail to adequately account for the number of ways an attacker may violate a security policy. The Number of Paths metric fails to adequately account for the attack effort associated with the attack paths. To overcome these shortcomings, we propose a complimentary suite of attack graph-based security metrics and specify an algorithm for combining the usage of these metrics. We present simulated results that suggest that our approach reaches a conclusion about which of two attack graphs correspond to a network that is most secure in many instances.2012 Incentive Compatible Privacy-Preserving Distributed ClassificationIn this paper, we propose game-theoretic mechanisms to encourage truthful data sharing for distributed data mining. One proposed mechanism uses the classic Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) mechanism, and the other relies on the Shapley value. Neither relies on the ability to verify the data of the parties participating in the distributed data mining protocol. Instead, we incentivize truth telling based solely on the data mining result. This is especially useful for situations where privacy concerns prevent verification of the data. Under reasonable assumptions, we prove that these mechanisms are incentive compatible for distributed data mining. In addition, through extensive experimentation, we show that they are applicable in practice.2012 Iterative Trust and Reputation Management Using Belief PropagationIn this paper, we introduce the first application of the belief propagation algorithm in the design and evaluation of trust and reputation management systems. We approach the reputation management problem as an inference problem and describe it as computing marginal likelihood distributions from complicated global functions of many variables. However, we observe that computing the marginal probability functions is computationally prohibitive for large-scale reputation systems. Therefore, we propose to utilize the belief propagation algorithm to efficiently (in linear complexity) compute these marginal probability distributions; resulting a fully iterative probabilistic and belief propagation-based approach (referred to as BP-ITRM). BP-ITRM models the reputation system on a factor graph. By using a factor graph, we obtain a qualitative representation of how the consumers (buyers) and service providers (sellers) are related on a graphical structure. Further, by using such a factor graph, the global functions factor into products of simpler local functions, each of which depends on a subset of the variables. Then, we compute the marginal probability distribution functions of the variables representing the reputation values (of the service providers) by message passing between nodes in the graph. We show that BP-ITRM is reliable in filtering out malicious/unreliable reports. We provide a detailed evaluation of BP-ITRM via analysis and computer simulations. We prove that BP-ITRM iteratively reduces the error in the reputation values of service providers due to the malicious raters with a high probability. Further, we observe that this probability drops suddenly if a particular fraction of malicious raters is exceeded, which introduces a threshold property to the scheme. Furthermore, comparison of BP-ITRM with some well-known and commonly used reputation management techniques (e.g., Averaging Scheme, Bayesian Approach, and Cluster Filtering) indicates the superiority of – he proposed scheme in terms of robustness against attacks (e.g., ballot stuffing, bad mouthing). Finally, BP-ITRM introduces a linear complexity in the number of service providers and consumers, far exceeding the efficiency of other schemes.2012 Large Margin Gaussian Mixture Models with Differential PrivacyAs increasing amounts of sensitive personal information is aggregated into data repositories, it has become important to develop mechanisms for processing the data without revealing information about individual data instances. The differential privacy model provides a framework for the development and theoretical analysis of such mechanisms. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for learning a discriminatively trained multiclass Gaussian mixture model-based classifier that preserves differential privacy using a large margin loss function with a perturbed regularization term. We present a theoretical upper bound on the excess risk of the classifier introduced by the perturbation.2012 Low Energy Online Self-Test of Embedded Processors in Dependable WSN NodesWireless Sensor Network (WSN) nodes are often deployed in harsh environments where the possibility of permanent and especially intermittent faults due to environmental hazards is significantly increased, while silicon aging effects are also exacerbated. Thus, online and in-field testing is necessary to guarantee correctness of operation. At the same time, online testing of processors integrated in WSN nodes has the requirement of minimum energy consumption, because these devices operate on battery, cannot be connected to any external power supply, and the battery duration determines the lifetime of the system. Software-Based Self-Test (SBST) has emerged as an effective strategy for online testing of processors integrated in nonsafety critical applications. However, the notion of dependability includes not only reliability but also availability. Thus, in order to encase both aspects we present a methodology for the optimization of SBST routines from the energy perspective. The refined methodology presented in this paper is able to be effectively applied in the case that the SBST routines are not initially available and need to be downloaded to the WSN nodes, as well as the case that the SBST routines are available in a flash memory. The methodology is extended to maximize the energy gains for WSN architectures offering clock gating or Dynamic Frequency Scaling features. Simulation results show that energy savings at processor level are up to 36.5 percent, which depending on the characteristics of the WSN system, can translate in several weeks of increased lifetime, especially if the routines need to be downloaded to the WSN node.2012 M-Score A Misuseability Weight MeasureDetecting and preventing data leakage and data misuse poses a serious challenge for organizations, especially when dealing with insiders with legitimate permissions to access the organization’s systems and its critical data. In this paper, we present a new concept, Misuseability Weight, for estimating the risk emanating from data exposed to insiders. This concept focuses on assigning a score that represents the sensitivity level of the data exposed to the user and by that predicts the ability of the user to maliciously exploit this data. Then, we propose a new measure, the M-score, which assigns a misuseability weight to tabular data, discuss some of its properties, and demonstrate its usefulness in several leakage scenarios. One of the main challenges in applying the M-score measure is in acquiring the required knowledge from a domain expert. Therefore, we present and evaluate two approaches toward eliciting misuseability conceptions from the domain expert.

2012 Quantitative Analysis of Consensus AlgorithmsConsensus is one of the key problems in fault-tolerant distributed computing. Although the solvability of consensus is now a well-understood problem, comparing different algorithms in terms of efficiency is still an open problem. In this paper, we address this question for round-based consensus algorithms using communication predicates, on top of a partial synchronous system that alternates between good and bad periods (synchronous and nonsynchronous periods). Communication predicates together with the detailed timing information of the underlying partially synchronous system provide a convenient and powerful framework for comparing different consensus algorithms and their implementations. This approach allows us to quantify the required length of a good period to solve a given number of consensus instances. With our results, we can observe several interesting issues, such as the number of rounds of an algorithm is not necessarily a good metric for its performance.2012 Recommendation Models for Open AuthorizationMajor online platforms such as Facebook, Google, and Twitter allow third-party applications such as games, and productivity applications access to user online private data. Such accesses must be authorized by users at installation time. The Open Authorization protocol (OAuth) was introduced as a secure and efficient method for authorizing third-party applications without releasing a user’s access credentials. However, OAuth implementations don’t provide the necessary fine-grained access control, nor any recommendations, i.e., which access control decisions are most appropriate. We propose an extension to the OAuth 2.0 authorization that enables the provisioning of fine-grained authorization recommendations to users when granting permissions to third-party applications. We propose a multicriteria recommendation model that utilizes application-based, user-based, and category-based collaborative filtering mechanisms. Our collaborative filtering mechanisms are based on previous user decisions, and application permission requests to enhance the privacy of the overall site’s user population. We implemented our proposed OAuth extension as a browser extension that allows users to easily configure their privacy settings at application installation time, provides recommendations on requested privacy permissions, and collects data regarding user decisions. Our experiments on the collected data indicate that the proposed framework efficiently enhanced the user awareness and privacy related to third-party application authorizations.2012 Remote Attestation with Domain-Based Integrity Model and Policy AnalysisWe propose and implement an innovative remote attestation framework called DR@FT for efficiently measuring a target system based on an information flow-based integrity model. With this model, the high integrity processes of a system are first measured and verified, and these processes are then protected from accesses initiated by low integrity processes. Toward dynamic systems with frequently changed system states, our framework verifies the latest state changes of a target system instead of considering the entire system information. Our attestation evaluation adopts a graph-based method to represent integrity violations, and the graph-based policy analysis is further augmented with a ranked violation graph to support high semantic reasoning of attestation results. As a result, DR@FT provides efficient and effective attestation of a system’s integrity status, and offers intuitive reasoning of attestation results for security administrators. Our experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of DR@FT.

2012 Revisiting Defenses against Large-Scale Online Password Guessing AttacksBrute force and dictionary attacks on password-only remote login services are now widespread and ever increasing. Enabling convenient login for legitimate users while preventing such attacks is a difficult problem. Automated Turing Tests (ATTs) continue to be an effective, easy-to-deploy approach to identify automated malicious login attempts with reasonable cost of inconvenience to users. In this paper, we discuss the inadequacy of existing and proposed login protocols designed to address large-scale online dictionary attacks (e.g., from a botnet of hundreds of thousands of nodes). We propose a new Password Guessing Resistant Protocol (PGRP), derived upon revisiting prior proposals designed to restrict such attacks. While PGRP limits the total number of login attempts from unknown remote hosts to as low as a single attempt per username, legitimate users in most cases (e.g., when attempts are made from known, frequently-used machines) can make several failed login attempts before being challenged with an ATT. We analyze the performance of PGRP with two real-world data sets and find it more promising than existing proposals.2012 Risk-Aware Mitigation for MANET Routing AttacksMobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) have been highly vulnerable to attacks due to the dynamic nature of its network infrastructure. Among these attacks, routing attacks have received considerable attention since it could cause the most devastating damage to MANET. Even though there exist several intrusion response techniques to mitigate such critical attacks, existing solutions typically attempt to isolate malicious nodes based on binary or naïve fuzzy response decisions. However, binary responses may result in the unexpected network partition, causing additional damages to the network infrastructure, and naïve fuzzy responses could lead to uncertainty in countering routing attacks in MANET. In this paper, we propose a risk-aware response mechanism to systematically cope with the identified routing attacks. Our risk-aware approach is based on an extended Dempster-Shafer mathematical theory of evidence introducing a notion of importance factors. In addition, our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with the consideration of several performance metrics.2012 Secure Failure Detection and Consensus in TrustedPalsWe present a modular redesign of TrustedPals, a smart card-based security framework for solving Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC). Originally, TrustedPals assumed a synchronous network setting and allowed to reduce SMC to the problem of fault-tolerant consensus among smart cards. We explore how to make TrustedPals applicable in environments with less synchrony and show how it can be used to solve asynchronous SMC. Within the redesign we investigate the problem of solving consensus in a general omission failure model augmented with failure detectors. To this end, we give novel definitions of both consensus and the class oP of failure detectors in the omission model, which we call ◇P(om), and show how to implement ◇P(om) and have consensus in such a system with very weak synchrony assumptions. The integration of failure detection and consensus into the TrustedPals framework uses tools from privacy enhancing techniques such as message padding and dummy traffic.2012 Stabilization Enabling TechnologyIn this work, we suggest hardware and software components that enable the creation of a self-stabilizing os/vmm on top of an off-the-shelf, nonself-stabilizing processor. A simple “watchdog” hardware that is called a periodic reset monitor (prm) provides a basic solution. The solution is extended to stabilization enabling hardware (seh) which removes any real time requirement from the os/vmm. A stabilization enabling system that extends the seh with software components provides the user (an os/vmm designer) with a self-stabilizing processor abstraction. The method uses only a modest addition of hardware, which is external to the microprocessor. We demonstrate our approach on the XScale core by Intel. Moreover, we suggest methods for the adaptation of existing system code (e.g., code for operating systems) to be self-stabilizing. One method allows capturing and enforcing the configuration used by the program, thus reducing the work of the self-stabilizing algorithm designer to considering only the dynamic (nonconfigurational) parts of the state. Another method is suggested for ensuring that, eventually, addresses of branch commands are examined using a sanity check segment. This method is then used to ensure that a sanity check is performed before critical operations. One application of the latter method is for enforcing a full separation of components in the system.2012 ZoneTrust Fast Zone-Based Node Compromise Detection and Revocation in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Sequential Hypothesis TestingDue to the unattended nature of wireless sensor networks, an adversary can physically capture and compromise sensor nodes and then mount a variety of attacks with the compromised nodes. To minimize the damage incurred by the compromised nodes, the system should detect and revoke them as soon as possible. To meet this need, researchers have recently proposed a variety of node compromise detection schemes in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. For example, reputation-based trust management schemes identify malicious nodes but do not revoke them due to the risk of false positives. Similarly, software-attestation schemes detect the subverted software modules of compromised nodes. However, they require each sensor node to be attested periodically, thus incurring substantial overhead. To mitigate the limitations of the existing schemes, we propose a zone-based node compromise detection and revocation scheme in wireless sensor networks. The main idea behind our scheme is to use sequential hypothesis testing to detect suspect regions in which compromised nodes are likely placed. In these suspect regions, the network operator performs software attestation against sensor nodes, leading to the detection and revocation of the compromised nodes. Through quantitative analysis and simulation experiments, we show that the proposed scheme detects the compromised nodes with a small number of samples while reducing false positive and negative rates, even if a substantial fraction of the nodes in the zone are compromised. Additionally, we model the detection problem using a game theoretic analysis, derive the optimal strategies for the attacker and the defender, and show that the attacker’s gain from node compromise is greatly limited by the defender when both the attacker and the defender follow their optimal strategies2012

 

TECHNOLOGY                                           : DOT NET

 

DOMAIN                                                       : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DATA MINIG

 

S.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
Scalable Learning Of Collective Behavior This study of collective behavior is to understand how individuals behave in a social networking environment. Oceans of data generated by social media like Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, and YouTube present opportunities and challenges to study collective behavior on a large scale. we aim to learn to predict collective behavior in social media 2012
Outsourced Similarity Search on Metric Data Assets This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example. Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low-initial investment. 2012
Semi-Supervised Maximum Margin Clustering With Pairwise Constraints This paper presents an analysis that suggests this problem degrades the quality of the clustering result, and it presents a new link-based approach, which improves the conventional matrix by discovering unknown entries through similarity between clusters in an ensemble. In particular, an efficient link-based algorithm is proposed for the underlying similarity assessment 2012
Multiparty Access Control for Online Social Networks: Model and Mechanisms In this paper, we propose an approach to enable the protection of shared data associated with multiple users in Online social networks. We formulate an access control model to capture the essence of multiparty authorization requirements, along with a multiparty policy speci?cation scheme and a policy enforcement mechanism 2012
Manifold Adaptive Experimental Design for Text Categorization In this paper, we propose a novel active learning algorithm which is performed in the data manifold adaptive kernel space. The manifold structure is incorporated into the kernel space by using graph Laplacian. This way, the manifold adaptive kernel space reflects the underlying geometry of the data 2012
TSCAN: A Content Anatomy Approach to Temporal Topic Summarization This paper defined as a seminal event or activity along with all directly related events and activities. It is represented by a chronological sequence of documents published by different authors on the Internet. In this study, we define a task called topic anatomy, which summarizes and associates the core parts of a topic temporally so that readers can understand the content easily 2012
Slicing: A New Approach for Privacy Preserving Data Publishing  Dotnet

Several anonymization techniques, such as generalization and bucketization, have been designed for privacy preserving

microdata publishing. Recent work has shown that generalization loses considerable amount of information, especially for highdimensional data. Bucketization, on the other hand, does not prevent membership disclosure and does not apply for data that do not have a clear separation between quasi-identifying attributes and sensitive attributes. In this paper, we present a novel technique called slicing, which partitions the data both horizontally and vertically. We show that slicing preserves better data utility than generalization and can be used for membership disclosure protection. Another important advantage of slicing is that it can handle high-dimensional data. We show how slicing can be used for attribute disclosure protection and develop an efficient algorithm for computing the sliced data that obey the ‘-diversity requirement. Our workload experiments confirm that slicing preserves better utility than generalization and is more effective than bucketization in workloads involving the sensitive attribute. Our experiments also demonstrate that slicing can be used to prevent membership disclosure.2012 Effective Pattern Discovery for Text MiningMany data mining techniques have been proposed for mining useful patterns in text documents. However, how to effectively use and update discovered patterns is still an open research issue, especially in the domain of text mining. Since most existing text mining methods adopted term-based approaches, they all suffer from the problems of polysemy and synonymy. Over the years, people have often held the hypothesis that pattern (or phrase)-based approaches should perform better than the term-based ones, but many experiments do not support this hypothesis. This paper presents an innovative and effective pattern discovery technique which includes the processes of pattern deploying and pattern evolving, to improve the effectiveness of using and updating discovered patterns for finding relevant and interesting information. Substantial experiments on RCV1 data collection and TREC topics demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves encouraging performance2012 Decentralized probabilistic text clusteringText clustering is an established technique for improving quality in information retrieval, for both centralized and distributed environments. However, traditional text clustering algorithms fail to scale on highly distributed environments, such as peer-to-peer networks. Our algorithm for peer-to-peer clustering achieves high scalability by using a probabilistic approach for assigning documents to clusters. It enables a peer to compare each of its documents only with very few selected clusters, without significant loss of clustering quality. The algorithm offers probabilistic guarantees for the correctness of each document assignment to a cluster. Extensive experimental evaluation with up to 1 million peers and 1 million documents demonstrates the scalability and effectiveness of the algorithm2012 Joint Top-K Spatial Keyword Query ProcessingWeb users and content are increasingly being geopositioned, and increased focus is being given to serving local content in response to web queries. This development calls for spatial keyword queries that take into account both the locations and textual descriptions of content. We study the efficient, joint processing of multiple top-k spatial keyword queries. Such joint processing is attractive during high query loads and also occurs when multiple queries are used to obfuscate a user’s true query. We propose a novel algorithm and index structure for the joint processing of top-k spatial keyword queries. Empirical studies show that the proposed solution is efficient on real data sets. We also offer analytical studies on synthetic data sets to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution

2012 A Query Formulation Language for the Data WebWe present a query formulation language (called MashQL) in order to easily query and fuse structured data on the web. The main novelty of MashQL is that it allows people with limited IT skills to explore and query one (or multiple) data sources without prior knowledge about the schema, structure, vocabulary, or any technical details of these sources. More importantly, to be robust and cover most cases in practice, we do not assume that a data source should have – an offline or inline – schema. This poses several language-design and performance complexities that we fundamentally tackle. To illustrate the query formulation power of MashQL, and without loss of generality, we chose the Data web scenario. We also chose querying RDF, as it is the most primitive data model; hence, MashQL can be similarly used for querying relational databases and XML. We present two implementations of MashQL, an online mashup editor, and a Firefox add on. The former illustrates how MashQL can be used to query and mash up the Data web as simple as filtering and piping web feeds; and the Firefox add on illustrates using the browser as a web composer rather than only a navigator. To end, we evaluate MashQL on querying two data sets, DBLP and DBPedia, and show that our indexing techniques allow instant user interaction.

2012 A Genetic Programming Approach to Record DeduplicationSeveral systems that rely on consistent data to offer high-quality services, such as digital libraries and e-commerce brokers, may be affected by the existence of duplicates, quasi replicas, or near-duplicate entries in their repositories. Because of that, there have been significant investments from private and government organizations for developing methods for removing replicas from its data repositories. This is due to the fact that clean and replica-free repositories not only allow the retrieval of higher quality information but also lead to more concise data and to potential savings in computational time and resources to process this data. In this paper, we propose a genetic programming approach to record deduplication that combines several different pieces of evidence extracted from the data content to find a deduplication function that is able to identify whether two entries in a repository are replicas or not. As shown by our experiments, our approach outperforms an existing state-of-the-art method found in the literature. Moreover, the suggested functions are computationally less demanding since they use fewer evidence. In addition, our genetic programming approach is capable of automatically adapting these functions to a given fixed replica identification boundary, freeing the user from the burden of having to choose and tune this parameter.2012 A Knowledge-Driven Approach to Activity Recognition in Smart HomesThis paper introduces a knowledge-driven approach to real-time, continuous activity recognition based on multisensor data streams in smart homes. The approach goes beyond the traditional data-centric methods for activity recognition in three ways. First, it makes extensive use of domain knowledge in the life cycle of activity recognition. Second, it uses ontologies for explicit context and activity modeling and representation. Third and finally, it exploits semantic reasoning and classification for activity inferencing, thus enabling both coarse-grained and fine-grained activity recognition. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of smart homes and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) upon which we built both context and ADL ontologies. We present a generic system architecture for the proposed knowledge-driven approach and describe the underlying ontology-based recognition process. Special emphasis is placed on semantic subsumption reasoning algorithms for activity recognition. The proposed approach has been implemented in a function-rich software system, which was deployed in a smart home research laboratory. We evaluated the proposed approach and the developed system through extensive experiments involving a number of various ADL use scenarios. An average activity recognition rate of 94.44 percent was achieved and the average recognition runtime per recognition operation was measured as 2.5 seconds.2012 A Framework for Personal Mobile Commerce Pattern Mining and PredictionDue to a wide range of potential applications, research on mobile commerce has received a lot of interests from both of the industry and academia. Among them, one of the active topic areas is the mining and prediction of users’ mobile commerce behaviors such as their movements and purchase transactions. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, called Mobile Commerce Explorer (MCE), for mining and prediction of mobile users’ movements and purchase transactions under the context of mobile commerce. The MCE framework consists of three major components: 1) Similarity Inference Model (SIM) for measuring the similarities among stores and items, which are two basic mobile commerce entities considered in this paper; 2) Personal Mobile Commerce Pattern Mine (PMCP-Mine) algorithm for efficient discovery of mobile users’ Personal Mobile Commerce Patterns (PMCPs); and 3) Mobile Commerce Behavior Predictor (MCBP) for prediction of possible mobile user behaviors. To our best knowledge, this is the first work that facilitates mining and prediction of mobile users’ commerce behaviors in order to recommend stores and items previously unknown to a user. We perform an extensive experimental evaluation by simulation and show that our proposals produce excellent results.

2012 A Multidimensional Sequence Approach to Measuring Tree SimilarityTree is one of the most common and well-studied data structures in computer science. Measuring the similarity of such structures is key to analyzing this type of data. However, measuring tree similarity is not trivial due to the inherent complexity of trees and the ensuing large search space. Tree kernel, a state of the art similarity measurement of trees, represents trees as vectors in a feature space and measures similarity in this space. When different features are used, different algorithms are required. Tree edit distance is another widely used similarity measurement of trees. It measures similarity through edit operations needed to transform one tree to another. Without any restrictions on edit operations, the computation cost is too high to be applicable to large volume of data. To improve efficiency of tree edit distance, some approximations were introduced into tree edit distance. However, their effectiveness can be compromised. In this paper, a novel approach to measuring tree similarity is presented. Trees are represented as multidimensional sequences and their similarity is measured on the basis of their sequence representations. Multidimensional sequences have their sequential dimensions and spatial dimensions. We measure the sequential similarity by the all common subsequences sequence similarity measurement or the longest common subsequence measurement, and measure the spatial similarity by dynamic time warping. Then we combine them to give a measure of tree similarity. A brute force algorithm to calculate the similarity will have high computational cost. In the spirit of dynamic programming two efficient algorithms are designed for calculating the similarity, which have quadratic time complexity. The new measurements are evaluated in terms of classification accuracy in two popular classifiers (k-nearest neighbor and support vector machine) and in terms of search effectiveness and efficiency in k-nearest neighbor similarity search, using three differ- nt data sets from natural language processing and information retrieval. Experimental results show that the new measurements outperform the benchmark measures consistently and significantly.2012 A Query Formulation Language for the Data WebWe present a query formulation language (called MashQL) in order to easily query and fuse structured data on the web. The main novelty of MashQL is that it allows people with limited IT skills to explore and query one (or multiple) data sources without prior knowledge about the schema, structure, vocabulary, or any technical details of these sources. More importantly, to be robust and cover most cases in practice, we do not assume that a data source should have – an offline or inline – schema. This poses several language-design and performance complexities that we fundamentally tackle. To illustrate the query formulation power of MashQL, and without loss of generality, we chose the Data web scenario. We also chose querying RDF, as it is the most primitive data model; hence, MashQL can be similarly used for querying relational databases and XML. We present two implementations of MashQL, an online mashup editor, and a Firefox add on. The former illustrates how MashQL can be used to query and mash up the Data web as simple as filtering and piping web feeds; and the Firefox add on illustrates using the browser as a web composer rather than only a navigator. To end, we evaluate MashQL on querying two data sets, DBLP and DBPedia, and show that our indexing techniques allow instant user interaction.2012 A Temporal Pattern Search Algorithm for Personal History Event VisualizationWe present Temporal Pattern Search (TPS), a novel algorithm for searching for temporal patterns of events in historical personal histories. The traditional method of searching for such patterns uses an automaton-based approach over a single array of events, sorted by time stamps. Instead, TPS operates on a set of arrays, where each array contains all events of the same type, sorted by time stamps. TPS searches for a particular item in the pattern using a binary search over the appropriate arrays. Although binary search is considerably more expensive per item, it allows TPS to skip many unnecessary events in personal histories. We show that TPS’s running time is bounded by O(m2n lg(n)), where m is the length of (number of events) a search pattern, and n is the number of events in a record (history). Although the asymptotic running time of TPS is inferior to that of a nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA) approach (O(mn)), TPS performs better than NFA under our experimental conditions. We also show TPS is very competitive with Shift-And, a bit-parallel approach, with real data. Since the experimental conditions we describe here subsume the conditions under which analysts would typically use TPS (i.e., within an interactive visualization program), we argue that TPS is an appropriate design choice for us.

2012 A Variational Bayesian Framework for Clustering with Multiple GraphsMining patterns in graphs has become an important issue in real applications, such as bioinformatics and web mining. We address a graph clustering problem where a cluster is a set of densely connected nodes, under a practical setting that 1) the input is multiple graphs which share a set of nodes but have different edges and 2) a true cluster cannot be found in all given graphs. For this problem, we propose a probabilistic generative model and a robust learning scheme based on variational Bayesian estimation. A key feature of our probabilistic framework is that not only nodes but also given graphs can be clustered at the same time, allowing our model to capture clusters found in only part of all given graphs. We empirically evaluated the effectiveness of the proposed framework on not only a variety of synthetic graphs but also real gene networks, demonstrating that our proposed approach can improve the clustering performance of competing methods in both synthetic and real data.

2012 Agglomerative Mean-Shift ClusteringMean-Shift (MS) is a powerful nonparametric clustering method. Although good accuracy can be achieved, its computational cost is particularly expensive even on moderate data sets. In this paper, for the purpose of algorithmic speedup, we develop an agglomerative MS clustering method along with its performance analysis. Our method, namely Agglo-MS, is built upon an iterative query set compression mechanism which is motivated by the quadratic bounding optimization nature of MS algorithm. The whole framework can be efficiently implemented in linear running time complexity. We then extend Agglo-MS into an incremental version which performs comparably to its batch counterpart. The efficiency and accuracy of Agglo-MS are demonstrated by extensive comparing experiments on synthetic and real data sets.

2012 Continuous Top-k Dominating QueriesTop-k dominating queries use an intuitive scoring function which ranks multidimensional points with respect to their dominance power, i.e., the number of points that a point dominates. The k points with the best (e.g., highest) scores are returned to the user. Both top-k and skyline queries have been studied in a streaming environment, where changes to the data set are very frequent. In such an environment, continuous query processing techniques are required toward efficient monitoring of query results, since periodic query re-execution is computationally intensive, and therefore, prohibitive. This work contains the first study of continuous top-k dominating queries over data streams. In comparison to continuous top-k and skyline queries, continuous top-k dominating queries pose additional challenges. Three exact algorithms (BFA, EVA, ADA) are studied, and among them ADA, which is enhanced with additional optimization techniques, shows the best overall performance. In some cases, we are willing to trade accuracy for speed. Toward this direction, two approximate algorithms are proposed (AHBA and AMSA). AHBA offers probabilistic guarantees regarding the accuracy of the result based on the Hoeffding bound, whereas AMSA performs a more aggressive computation resulting in more efficient processing. Evaluation results, based on real-life and synthetic data sets, show the efficiency and scalability of our techniques.2012 Creating Evolving User Behavior Profiles AutomaticallyKnowledge about computer users is very beneficial for assisting them, predicting their future actions or detecting masqueraders. In this paper, a new approach for creating and recognizing automatically the behavior profile of a computer user is presented. In this case, a computer user behavior is represented as the sequence of the commands she/he types during her/his work. This sequence is transformed into a distribution of relevant subsequences of commands in order to find out a profile that defines its behavior. Also, because a user profile is not necessarily fixed but rather it evolves/changes, we propose an evolving method to keep up to date the created profiles using an Evolving Systems approach. In this paper, we combine the evolving classifier with a trie-based user profiling to obtain a powerful self-learning online scheme. We also develop further the recursive formula of the potential of a data point to become a cluster center using cosine distance, which is provided in the Appendix. The novel approach proposed in this paper can be applicable to any problem of dynamic/evolving user behavior modeling where it can be represented as a sequence of actions or events. It has been evaluated on several real data streams.

2012 D-Cache Universal Distance Cache for Metric Access MethodsThe caching of accessed disk pages has been successfully used for decades in database technology, resulting in effective amortization of I/O operations needed within a stream of query or update requests. However, in modern complex databases, like multimedia databases, the I/O cost becomes a minor performance factor. In particular, metric access methods (MAMs), used for similarity search in complex unstructured data, have been designed to minimize rather the number of distance computations than I/O cost (when indexing or querying). Inspired by I/O caching in traditional databases, in this paper we introduce the idea of distance caching for usage with MAMs – a novel approach to streamline similarity search. As a result, we present the D-cache, a main-memory data structure which can be easily implemented into any MAM, in order to spare the distance computations spent by queries/updates. In particular, we have modified two state-of-the-art MAMs to make use of D-cache – the M-tree and Pivot tables. Moreover, we present the D-file, an index-free MAM based on simple sequential search augmented by D-cache. The experimental evaluation shows that performance gain achieved due to D-cache is significant for all the MAMs, especially for the D-file2012 Extending Attribute Information for Small Data Set ClassificationData quantity is the main issue in the small data set problem, because usually insufficient data will not lead to a robust classification performance. How to extract more effective information from a small data set is thus of considerable interest. This paper proposes a new attribute construction approach which converts the original data attributes into a higher dimensional feature space to extract more attribute information by a similarity-based algorithm using the classification-oriented fuzzy membership function. Seven data sets with different attribute sizes are employed to examine the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method has a superior classification performance when compared to principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), and kernel independent component analysis (KICA) with a Gaussian kernel in the support vector machine (SVM) classifier.2012 Fuzzy Orders-of-Magnitude-Based Link Analysis for Qualitative Alias DetectionAlias detection has been the significant subject being extensively studied for several domain applications, especially intelligence data analysis. Many preliminary methods rely on text-based measures, which are ineffective with false descriptions of terrorists’ name, date-of-birth, and address. This barrier may be overcome through link information presented in relationships among objects of interests. Several numerical link-based similarity techniques have proven effective for identifying similar objects in the Internet and publication domains. However, as a result of exceptional cases with unduly high measure, these methods usually generate inaccurate similarity descriptions. Yet, they are either computationally inefficient or ineffective for alias detection with a single-property based model. This paper presents a novel orders-of-magnitude based similarity measure that integrates multiple link properties to refine the estimation process and derive semantic-rich similarity descriptions. The approach is based on order-of-magnitude reasoning with which the theory of fuzzy set is blended to provide quantitative semantics of descriptors and their unambiguous mathematical manipulation. With such explanatory formalism, analysts can validate the generated results and partly resolve the problem of false positives. It also allows coherent interpretation and communication within a decision-making group, using this computing-with-word capability. Its performance is evaluated over a terrorism-related data set, with further generalization over publication and email data collections.

2012 Holistic Top-k Simple Shortest Path Join in GraphsMotivated by the needs such as group relationship analysis, this paper introduces a new operation on graphs, named top-k path join, which discovers the top-k simple shortest paths between two given node sets. Rather than discovering the top-k simple paths between each node pair, this paper proposes a holistic join method which answers the top-k path join by finding constrained top-k simple shortest paths between two nodes, and then devises an efficient method to handle the latter problem. Specifically, we transform the graph by encoding the precomputed shortest paths to the target node, and use the transformed graph in the candidate path searching. We show that the candidate path searching on the transformed graph not only has the same result as that on the original graph but also can be terminated much earlier with the aid of precomputed results. We also discuss two other optimization strategies, including considering the join constraint in the candidate path generation as early as possible, and pruning search space in each candidate path generation with an adaptively determined threshold. The final extensive experimental results also show that our method offers a significant performance improvement over existing ones.

2012 Identifying Evolving Groups in Dynamic Multimode NetworksA multimode network consists of heterogeneous types of actors with various interactions occurring between them. Identifying communities in a multimode network can help understand the structural properties of the network, address the data shortage and unbalanced problems, and assist tasks like targeted marketing and finding influential actors within or between groups. In general, a network and its group structure often evolve unevenly. In a dynamic multimode network, both group membership and interactions can evolve, posing a challenging problem of identifying these evolving communities. In this work, we try to address this problem by employing the temporal information to analyze a multimode network. A temporally regularized framework and its convergence property are carefully studied. We show that the algorithm can be interpreted as an iterative latent semantic analysis process, which allows for extensions to handle networks with actor attributes and within-mode interactions. Experiments on both synthetic data and real-world networks demonstrate the efficacy of our approach and suggest its generality in capturing evolving groups in networks with heterogeneous entities and complex relationships.2012 Incremental Information Extraction Using Relational DatabasesInformation extraction systems are traditionally implemented as a pipeline of special-purpose processing modules targeting the extraction of a particular kind of information. A major drawback of such an approach is that whenever a new extraction goal emerges or a module is improved, extraction has to be reapplied from scratch to the entire text corpus even though only a small part of the corpus might be affected. In this paper, we describe a novel approach for information extraction in which extraction needs are expressed in the form of database queries, which are evaluated and optimized by database systems. Using database queries for information extraction enables generic extraction and minimizes reprocessing of data by performing incremental extraction to identify which part of the data is affected by the change of components or goals. Furthermore, our approach provides automated query generation components so that casual users do not have to learn the query language in order to perform extraction. To demonstrate the feasibility of our incremental extraction approach, we performed experiments to highlight two important aspects of an information extraction system: efficiency and quality of extraction results. Our experiments show that in the event of deployment of a new module, our incremental extraction approach reduces the processing time by 89.64 percent as compared to a traditional pipeline approach. By applying our methods to a corpus of 17 million biomedical abstracts, our experiments show that the query performance is efficient for real-time applications. Our experiments also revealed that our approach achieves high quality extraction results.2012 Learning a Propagable Graph for Semisupervised Learning Classification and RegressionIn this paper, we present a novel framework, called learning by propagability, for two essential data mining tasks, i.e., classification and regression. The whole learning process is driven by the philosophy that the data labels and the optimal feature representation jointly constitute a harmonic system, where the data labels are invariant with respect to the propagation on the similarity graph constructed based on the optimal feature representation. Based on this philosophy, a unified framework of learning by propagability is proposed for the purposes of both classification and regression. Specifically, this framework has three characteristics: 1) the formulation unifies the label propagation and optimal feature representation pursuing, and thus the label propagation process is enhanced by benefiting from the refined similarity graph constructed with the derived optimal feature representation instead of the original representation; 2) it unifies the formulations for supervised and semisupervised learning in both classification and regression tasks; and 3) it can directly deal with the multiclass classification problems. Extensive experiments for the classification task on UCI toy data sets, handwritten digit recognition, face recognition, and microarray recognition as well as for the regression task of human age estimation on the FG-NET aging database, all validate the effectiveness of our proposed learning framework, compared with the state-of-the-art counterparts.2012 Locally Discriminative CoclusteringDifferent from traditional one-sided clustering techniques, coclustering makes use of the duality between samples and features to partition them simultaneously. Most of the existing co-clustering algorithms focus on modeling the relationship between samples and features, whereas the intersample and interfeature relationships are ignored. In this paper, we propose a novel coclustering algorithm named Locally Discriminative Coclustering (LDCC) to explore the relationship between samples and features as well as the intersample and interfeature relationships. Specifically, the sample-feature relationship is modeled by a bipartite graph between samples and features. And we apply local linear regression to discovering the intrinsic discriminative structures of both sample space and feature space. For each local patch in the sample and feature spaces, a local linear function is estimated to predict the labels of the points in this patch. The intersample and interfeature relationships are thus captured by minimizing the fitting errors of all the local linear functions. In this way, LDCC groups strongly associated samples and features together, while respecting the local structures of both sample and feature spaces. Our experimental results on several benchmark data sets have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

2012 Manifold Adaptive Experimental Design for Text CategorizationIn many information processing tasks, labels are usually expensive and the unlabeled data points are abundant. To reduce the cost on collecting labels, it is crucial to predict which unlabeled examples are the most informative, i.e., improve the classifier the most if they were labeled. Many active learning techniques have been proposed for text categorization, such as SVMActive and Transductive Experimental Design. However, most of previous approaches try to discover the discriminant structure of the data space, whereas the geometrical structure is not well respected. In this paper, we propose a novel active learning algorithm which is performed in the data manifold adaptive kernel space. The manifold structure is incorporated into the kernel space by using graph Laplacian. This way, the manifold adaptive kernel space reflects the underlying geometry of the data. By minimizing the expected error with respect to the optimal classifier, we can select the most representative and discriminative data points for labeling. Experimental results on text categorization have demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed approach.2012 Measuring the Sky On Computing Data Cubes via Skylining the MeasuresData cube is a key element in supporting fast OLAP. Traditionally, an aggregate function is used to compute the values in data cubes. In this paper, we extend the notion of data cubes with a new perspective. Instead of using an aggregate function, we propose to build data cubes using the skyline operation as the “aggregate function.” Data cubes built in this way are called “group-by skyline cubes” and can support a variety of analytical tasks. Nevertheless, there are several challenges in implementing group-by skyline cubes in data warehouses: 1) the skyline operation is computational intensive, 2) the skyline operation is holistic, and 3) a group-by skyline cube contains both grouping and skyline dimensions, rendering it infeasible to precompute all cuboids in advance. This paper gives details on how to store, materialize, and query such cubes.2012 Mutual Information-Based Supervised Attribute Clustering for Microarray Sample ClassificationMicroarray technology is one of the important biotechnological means that allows to record the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously within a number of different samples. An important application of microarray gene expression data in functional genomics is to classify samples according to their gene expression profiles. Among the large amount of genes presented in gene expression data, only a small fraction of them is effective for performing a certain diagnostic test. Hence, one of the major tasks with the gene expression data is to find groups of coregulated genes whose collective expression is strongly associated with the sample categories or response variables. In this regard, a new supervised attribute clustering algorithm is proposed to find such groups of genes. It directly incorporates the information of sample categories into the attribute clustering process. A new quantitative measure, based on mutual information, is introduced that incorporates the information of sample categories to measure the similarity between attributes. The proposed supervised attribute clustering algorithm is based on measuring the similarity between attributes using the new quantitative measure, whereby redundancy among the attributes is removed. The clusters are then refined incrementally based on sample categories. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of existing supervised and unsupervised gene clustering and gene selection algorithms based on the class separability index and the predictive accuracy of naive bayes classifier, K-nearest neighbor rule, and support vector machine on three cancer and two arthritis microarray data sets. The biological significance of the generated clusters is interpreted using the gene ontology. An important finding is that the proposed supervised attribute clustering algorithm is shown to be effective for identifying biologically significant gene clusters with excellent predictive capability.

2012 On the Spectral Characterization and Scalable Mining of Network CommunitiesNetwork communities refer to groups of vertices within which their connecting links are dense but between which they are sparse. A network community mining problem (or NCMP for short) is concerned with the problem of finding all such communities from a given network. A wide variety of applications can be formulated as NCMPs, ranging from social and/or biological network analysis to web mining and searching. So far, many algorithms addressing NCMPs have been developed and most of them fall into the categories of either optimization based or heuristic methods. Distinct from the existing studies, the work presented in this paper explores the notion of network communities and their properties based on the dynamics of a stochastic model naturally introduced. In the paper, a relationship between the hierarchical community structure of a network and the local mixing properties of such a stochastic model has been established with the large-deviation theory. Topological information regarding to the community structures hidden in networks can be inferred from their spectral signatures. Based on the above-mentioned relationship, this work proposes a general framework for characterizing, analyzing, and mining network communities. Utilizing the two basic properties of metastability, i.e., being locally uniform and temporarily fixed, an efficient implementation of the framework, called the LM algorithm, has been developed that can scalably mine communities hidden in large-scale networks. The effectiveness and efficiency of the LM algorithm have been theoretically analyzed as well as experimentally validated.2012 Organizing User Search HistoriesUsers are increasingly pursuing complex task-oriented goals on the web, such as making travel arrangements, managing finances, or planning purchases. To this end, they usually break down the tasks into a few codependent steps and issue multiple queries around these steps repeatedly over long periods of time. To better support users in their long-term information quests on the web, search engines keep track of their queries and clicks while searching online. In this paper, we study the problem of organizing a user’s historical queries into groups in a dynamic and automated fashion. Automatically identifying query groups is helpful for a number of different search engine components and applications, such as query suggestions, result ranking, query alterations, sessionization, and collaborative search. In our approach, we go beyond approaches that rely on textual similarity or time thresholds, and we propose a more robust approach that leverages search query logs. We experimentally study the performance of different techniques, and showcase their potential, especially when combined together.2012 Outsourced Similarity Search on Metric Data AssetsThis paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example. Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low-initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying it to the service provider for similarity queries on the transformed data. Our techniques provide interesting trade-offs between query cost and accuracy. They are then further extended to offer an intuitive privacy guarantee. Empirical studies with real data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of offering privacy while enabling efficient and accurate processing of similarity queries.2012 Query Planning for Continuous Aggregation Queries over a Network of Data AggregatorsContinuous queries are used to monitor changes to time varying data and to provide results useful for online decision making. Typically a user desires to obtain the value of some aggregation function over distributed data items, for example, to know value of portfolio for a client; or the AVG of temperatures sensed by a set of sensors. In these queries a client specifies a coherency requirement as part of the query. We present a low-cost, scalable technique to answer continuous aggregation queries using a network of aggregators of dynamic data items. In such a network of data aggregators, each data aggregator serves a set of data items at specific coherencies. Just as various fragments of a dynamic webpage are served by one or more nodes of a content distribution network, our technique involves decomposing a client query into subqueries and executing subqueries on judiciously chosen data aggregators with their individual subquery incoherency bounds. We provide a technique for getting the optimal set of subqueries with their incoherency bounds which satisfies client query’s coherency requirement with least number of refresh messages sent from aggregators to the client. For estimating the number of refresh messages, we build a query cost model which can be used to estimate the number of messages required to satisfy the client specified incoherency bound. Performance results using real-world traces show that our cost-based query planning leads to queries being executed using less than one third the number of messages required by existing schemes2012 Reconstructing Missing Data in State Estimation With AutoencodersThis paper presents the proof of concept for a new solution to the problem of recomposing missing information at the SCADA of energy/distribution management systems (EMS/DMS), through the use of offline trained autoencoders. These are neural networks with a special architecture, which allows them to store knowledge about a system in a nonlinear manifold characterized by their weights. Suitable algorithms may then recompose missing inputs (measurements). The paper shows that, trained with adequate information, autoencoders perform well in recomposing missing voltage and power values, and focuses on the particularly important application of inferring the topology of the network when information about switch status is absent. Examples with the IEEE RTS 24-bus network are presented to illustrate the concept and technique.

2012 ROAD A New Spatial Object Search Framework for Road NetworksIn this paper, we present a new system framework called ROAD for spatial object search on road networks. ROAD is extensible to diverse object types and efficient for processing various location-dependent spatial queries (LDSQs), as it maintains objects separately from a given network and adopts an effective search space pruning technique. Based on our analysis on the two essential operations for LDSQ processing, namely, network traversal and object lookup, ROAD organizes a large road network as a hierarchy of interconnected regional subnetworks (called Rnets). Each Rnet is augmented with 1) shortcuts and 2) object abstracts to accelerate network traversals and provide quick object lookups, respectively. To manage those shortcuts and object abstracts, two cooperating indices, namely, Route Overlay and Association Directory are devised. In detail, we present 1) the Rnet hierarchy and several properties useful in constructing and maintaining the Rnet hierarchy, 2) the design and implementation of the ROAD framework, and 3) a suite of efficient search algorithms for single-source LDSQs and multisource LDSQs. We conduct a theoretical performance analysis and carry out a comprehensive empirical study to evaluate ROAD. The analysis and experiment results show the superiority of ROAD over the state-of-the-art approaches.2012 Scalable Scheduling of Updates in Streaming Data WarehousesWe discuss update scheduling in streaming data warehouses, which combine the features of traditional data warehouses and data stream systems. In our setting, external sources push append-only data streams into the warehouse with a wide range of interarrival times. While traditional data warehouses are typically refreshed during downtimes, streaming warehouses are updated as new data arrive. We model the streaming warehouse update problem as a scheduling problem, where jobs correspond to processes that load new data into tables, and whose objective is to minimize data staleness over time (at time t, if a table has been updated with information up to some earlier time r, its staleness is t minus r). We then propose a scheduling framework that handles the complications encountered by a stream warehouse: view hierarchies and priorities, data consistency, inability to preempt updates, heterogeneity of update jobs caused by different interarrival times and data volumes among different sources, and transient overload. A novel feature of our framework is that scheduling decisions do not depend on properties of update jobs (such as deadlines), but rather on the effect of update jobs on data staleness. Finally, we present a suite of update scheduling algorithms and extensive simulation experiments to map out factors which affect their performance2012 Software Fault Prediction Using Quad Tree-Based K-Means Clustering AlgorithmUnsupervised techniques like clustering may be used for fault prediction in software modules, more so in those cases where fault labels are not available. In this paper a Quad Tree-based K-Means algorithm has been applied for predicting faults in program modules. The aims of this paper are twofold. First, Quad Trees are applied for finding the initial cluster centers to be input to the A’-Means Algorithm. An input threshold parameter δ governs the number of initial cluster centers and by varying δ the user can generate desired initial cluster centers. The concept of clustering gain has been used to determine the quality of clusters for evaluation of the Quad Tree-based initialization algorithm as compared to other initialization techniques. The clusters obtained by Quad Tree-based algorithm were found to have maximum gain values. Second, the Quad Tree- based algorithm is applied for predicting faults in program modules. The overall error rates of this prediction approach are compared to other existing algorithms and are found to be better in most of the cases.2012 Synthesizing Ontology Alignment Methods Using the Max-Sum AlgorithmThis paper addresses the problem of synthesizing ontology alignment methods by maximizing the social welfare within a group of interacting agents: Specifically, each agent is responsible for computing mappings concerning a specific ontology element, using a specific alignment method. Each agent interacts with other agents with whom it shares constraints concerning the validity of the mappings it computes. Interacting agents form a bipartite factor graph, composed of variable and function nodes, representing alignment decisions and utilities, respectively. Agents need to reach an agreement to the mapping of the ontology elements consistently to the semantics of specifications with respect to their mapping preferences. Addressing the synthesis problem in such a way allows us to use an extension of the max-sum algorithm to generate near-to-optimal solutions to the alignment of ontologies through local decentralized message passing. We show the potential of such an approach by synthesizing a number of alignment methods, studying their performance in the OAEI benchmark series.2012    42Understanding Errors in Approximate Distributed Latent Dirichlet AllocationLatent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is a popular algorithm for discovering semantic structure in large collections of text or other data. Although its complexity is linear in the data size, its use on increasingly massive collections has created considerable interest in parallel implementations. “Approximate distributed” LDA, or AD-LDA, approximates the popular collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithm for LDA models while running on a distributed architecture. Although this algorithm often appears to perform well in practice, its quality is not well understood theoretically or easily assessed on new data. In this work, we theoretically justify the approximation, and modify AD-LDA to track an error bound on performance. Specifically, we upper bound the probability of making a sampling error at each step of the algorithm (compared to an exact, sequential Gibbs sampler), given the samples drawn thus far. We show empirically that our bound is sufficiently tight to give a meaningful and intuitive measure of approximation error in AD-LDA, allowing the user to track the tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency while executing in parallel.201243Weakly Supervised Joint Sentiment-Topic Detection from TextSentiment analysis or opinion mining aims to use automated tools to detect subjective information such as opinions, attitudes, and feelings expressed in text. This paper proposes a novel probabilistic modeling framework called joint sentiment-topic (JST) model based on latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), which detects sentiment and topic simultaneously from text. A reparameterized version of the JST model called Reverse-JST, obtained by reversing the sequence of sentiment and topic generation in the modeling process, is also studied. Although JST is equivalent to Reverse-JST without a hierarchical prior, extensive experiments show that when sentiment priors are added, JST performs consistently better than Reverse-JST. Besides, unlike supervised approaches to sentiment classification which often fail to produce satisfactory performance when shifting to other domains, the weakly supervised nature of JST makes it highly portable to other domains. This is verified by the experimental results on data sets from five different domains where the JST model even outperforms existing semi-supervised approaches in some of the data sets despite using no labeled documents. Moreover, the topics and topic sentiment detected by JST are indeed coherent and informative. We hypothesize that the JST model can readily meet the demand of large-scale sentiment analysis from the web in an open-ended fashion.2012

 

TECHNOLOGY                               : DOT NET

 

DOMAIN                                           : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING

 

S.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
Toward Reliable Data Delivery for Highly Dynamic Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. This paper addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner. Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. Driven by this issue, we propose an efficient Position-based Opportunistic Routing (POR) protocol which takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. 2012
Hop-by-Hop Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Bandwidth Guarantees. Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) has become an important edge network to provide Internet access to remote areas and wireless connections in a metropolitan scale. In this paper, we study the problem of identifying the maximum available bandwidth path, a fundamental issue in supporting quality-of-service in WMNs. Due to interference among links, bandwidth, a well-known bottleneck metric in wired networks, is neither concave nor additive in wireless networks. 2012
Fast Data Collection in Tree-Based Wireless Sensor Networks We investigate the following fundamental question—how fast can information be collected from a wireless sensor network organized as tree? To address this, we explore and evaluate a number of different techniques using realistic simulation models under the many-to-one communication paradigm known as converge cast. We first consider time scheduling on a single frequency channel with the aim of minimizing the number of time slots required (schedule length) to complete a converge cast. 2012
Energy-Efficient Strategies for Cooperative Multichannel MAC Protocols Distributed Information Sharing (DISH) is a new cooperative approach to designing multichannel MAC protocols. It aids nodes in their decision making processes by compensating for their missing information via information sharing through neighboring nodes. This approach was recently shown to significantly boost the throughput of multichannel MAC protocols. 2012
Soft-TDMAC: A Software-Based 802.11 Overlay TDMA MAC with Microsecond Synchronization. We implement a new software-based multi-hop TDMA MAC protocol (Soft-TDMAC) with microsecond synchronization using a novel system interface for development of 802.11 overlay TDMA MAC protocols (SySI-MAC). SySI-MAC provides a kernel independent message-based interface for scheduling transmissions and sending and receiving 802.11 packets. 2012
Link Positions Matter: A Non commutative Routing Metric for Wireless Mesh Networks. We revisit the problem of computing the path with the minimum cost in terms of the expected number of link layer transmissions) in wireless mesh networks. Unlike previous efforts, such as the popular ETX, we account for the fact that MAC protocols incorporate a finite number of transmission attempts per packet. This in turn leads to our key observation: the performance of a path depends not only on the number of the links on the path and the quality of its links, but also, on the relative positions of the links on the path 2012
Local Greedy Approximation for Scheduling in Multihop Wireless Networks 2012 Dotnet Mobile Computing In recent years, there has been a significant amount of work done in developing low-complexity scheduling schemes to

achieve high performance in multihop wireless networks. A centralized suboptimal scheduling policy, called Greedy Maximal Scheduling (GMS) is a good candidate because its empirically observed performance is close to optimal in a variety of network settings. However, its distributed realization requires high complexity, which becomes a major obstacle for practical implementation. In this paper, we develop simple distributed greedy algorithms for scheduling in multihop wireless networks. We reduce the complexity by relaxing the global ordering requirement of GMS, up to near zero. Simulation results show that the new algorithms approximate the performance of GMS, and outperform the state-of-the-art distributed scheduling policies.

2012 Network Assisted Mobile Computing with Optimal Uplink Query Processing 2012 Dotnet Mobile Computing

Many mobile applications retrieve content from remote servers via user generated queries. Processing these queries is often needed before the desired content can be identified. Processing the request on the mobile devices can quickly sap the limited battery resources. Conversely, processing user-queries at remote servers can have slow response times due communication latency incurred during transmission of the potentially large query. We evaluate a network-assisted mobile computing scenario where midnetwork nodes with “leasing” capabilities are deployed by a service provider. Leasing computation power can reduce battery usage on the mobile devices and improve response times. However, borrowing processing power from mid-network nodes comes at a leasing cost which must be accounted for when making the decision of where processing should occur. We study the tradeoff between battery usage, processing and transmission latency, and mid-network leasing. We use the dynamic programming framework to solve for the optimal processing policies that suggest the amount of processing to be done at each mid-network node in order to minimize the processing and communication latency and processing costs. Through numerical studies, we examine the properties of the optimal processing policy and the core tradeoffs in such systems.2012 A Cost Analysis Framework for NEMO Prefix Delegation-Based SchemesNetwork Mobility (NEMO) efficiently manages the mobility of multiple nodes that moves together as a mobile network. A major limitation of the basic protocol in NEMO is the inefficient route between end hosts. A number of prefix delegation-based schemes have been proposed in the literature to solve the route optimization problem in NEMO. Approaches used by the schemes trade off delivery of packets through the partially optimized route with signaling and other processing overheads. Cost of delivering packets through the partially optimized route along with signaling and processing cost need to be measured to find out the gain from tradeoff. However, cost analysis performed so far on NEMO protocols consider only the cost of signaling. In this paper, we have developed analytical framework to measure the costs of the basic protocol for NEMO, and four representative prefix delegation-based schemes. Our results show that cost of packet delivery through the partially optimized route dominates over other costs. Therefore, optimizing the route completely is preferable to reduction of signaling as far as cost of network mobility is concerned. Our cost analysis framework will help in decision making to select the best route optimization scheme depending on the load imposed by the scheme on the infrastructure.2012 A Fade-Level Skew-Laplace Signal Strength Model for Device-Free Localization with Wireless NetworksDevice-free localization (DFL) is the estimation of the position of a person or object that does not carry any electronic device or tag. Existing model-based methods for DFL from RSS measurements are unable to locate stationary people in heavily obstructed environments. This paper introduces measurement-based statistical models that can be used to estimate the locations of both moving and stationary people using received signal strength (RSS) measurements in wireless networks. A key observation is that the statistics of RSS during human motion are strongly dependent on the RSS “fade level” during no motion. We define fade level and demonstrate, using extensive experimental data, that changes in signal strength measurements due to human motion can be modeled by the skew-Laplace distribution, with parameters dependent on the position of person and the fade level. Using the fade-level skew-Laplace model, we apply a particle filter to experimentally estimate the location of moving and stationary people in very different environments without changing the model parameters. We also show the ability to track more than one person with the model.2012 A Trigger Identification Service for Defending Reactive Jammers in WSNDuring the last decade, Reactive Jamming Attack has emerged as a great security threat to wireless sensor networks, due to its mass destruction to legitimate sensor communications and difficulty to be disclosed and defended. Considering the specific characteristics of reactive jammer nodes, a new scheme to deactivate them by efficiently identifying all trigger nodes, whose transmissions invoke the jammer nodes, has been proposed and developed. Such a trigger-identification procedure can work as an application-layer service and benefit many existing reactive-jamming defending schemes. In this paper, on the one hand, we leverage several optimization problems to provide a complete trigger-identification service framework for unreliable wireless sensor networks. On the other hand, we provide an improved algorithm with regard to two sophisticated jamming models, in order to enhance its robustness for various network scenarios. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are included to validate the performance of this framework.

2012 Approximation Algorithms for Data Broadcast in Wireless NetworksBroadcasting is a fundamental operation in wireless networks and plays an important role in the communication protocol design. In multihop wireless networks, however, interference at a node due to simultaneous transmissions from its neighbors makes it nontrivial to design a minimum-latency broadcast algorithm, which is known to be NP-complete. We present a simple 12-approximation algorithm for the one-to-all broadcast problem that improves all previously known guarantees for this problem. We then consider the all-to-all broadcast problem where each node sends its own message to all other nodes. For the all-to-all broadcast problem, we present two algorithms with approximation ratios of 20 and 34, improving the best result available in the literature. Finally, we report experimental evaluation of our algorithms. Our studies indicate that our algorithms perform much better in practice than the worst-case guarantees provided in the theoretical analysis and achieve up to 37 percent performance improvement over existing schemes.

2012 Link Positions Matter A Noncommutative Routing Metric for Wireless Mesh NetworksWe revisit the problem of computing the path with the minimum cost in terms of the expected number of link layer transmissions (including retransmissions) in wireless mesh networks. Unlike previous efforts, such as the popular ETX, we account for the fact that MAC protocols (including the IEEE 802.11 MAC) incorporate a finite number of transmission attempts per packet. This in turn leads to our key observation: the performance of a path depends not only on the number of the links on the path and the quality of its links, but also, on the relative positions of the links on the path. Based on this observation, we propose ETOP, a path metric that accurately captures the expected number of link layer transmissions required for reliable end-to-end packet delivery. We analytically compute ETOP, which is not trivial, since ETOP is a noncommutative function of the link success probabilities. Although ETOP is a more involved metric, we show that the problem of computing paths with the minimum ETOP cost can be solved by a greedy algorithm. We implement and evaluate a routing approach based on ETOP on a 25-node indoor mesh network. Our experiments show that the path selection with ETOP consistently results in superior TCP goodput (by over 50 percent in many cases) compared to path selection based on ETX. We also perform an in-depth analysis of the measurements to better understand why the paths selected by ETOP improve the TCP performance.2012 Chameleon A Color-Adaptive Web Browser for Mobile OLED DisplaysDisplays based on organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology are appearing on many mobile devices. Unlike liquid crystal displays (LCD), OLED displays consume dramatically different power for showing different colors. In particular, OLED displays are inefficient for showing bright colors. This has made them undesirable for mobile devices because much of the web content is of bright colors. To tackle this problem, we present the motivational studies, design, and realization of Chameleon, a color adaptive web browser that renders webpages with power-optimized color schemes under user-supplied constraints. Driven by the findings from our motivational studies, Chameleon provides end users with important options, offloads tasks that are not absolutely needed in real time, and accomplishes real-time tasks by carefully enhancing the codebase of a browser engine. According to measurements with OLED smartphones, Chameleon is able to reduce average system power consumption for web browsing by 41 percent and is able to reduce display power consumption by 64 percent without introducing any noticeable delay.2012 Compressed-Sensing-Enabled Video Streaming for Wireless Multimedia Sensor NetworksThis paper presents the design of a networked system for joint compression, rate control and error correction of video over resource-constrained embedded devices based on the theory of Compressed Sensing (CS). The objective of this work is to design a cross-layer system that jointly controls the video encoding rate, the transmission rate, and the channel coding rate to maximize the received video quality. First, compressed sensing-based video encoding for transmission over Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) is studied. It is shown that compressed sensing can overcome many of the current problems of video over WMSNs, primarily encoder complexity and low resiliency to channel errors. A rate controller is then developed with the objective of maintaining fairness among different videos while maximizing the received video quality. It is shown that the rate of Compressed Sensed Video (CSV) can be predictably controlled by varying only the compressed sensing sampling rate. It is then shown that the developed rate controller can be interpreted as the iterative solution to a convex optimization problem representing the optimization of the rate allocation across the network. The error resiliency properties of compressed sensed images and videos are then studied, and an optimal error detection and correction scheme is presented for video transmission over lossy channels. Finally, the entire system is evaluated through simulation and test bed evaluation. The rate controller is shown to outperform existing TCP-friendly rate control schemes in terms of both fairness and received video quality. The test bed results show that the rates converge to stable values in real channels2012 Coverage Verification without Location InformationWireless sensor networks (WSNs) have recently emerged as a prominent technology for environmental monitoring and hazardous event detection. Yet, their success depends considerably on their ability to ensure reliable event detection. Such guarantees can be provided only if the target field monitored by a WSN does not contain coverage holes that are not monitored by any sensor. Currently, the coverage-holes detection solutions require accurate knowledge of the sensors locations, which cannot be easily obtained, or they cannot provide guarantees on the coverage quality. In this study we address the challenge of designing an accurate k-coverage verification scheme, without using location information, for a predefined kges1. To this end, we present an efficient, distributed and localized k-coverage verification scheme with proven guarantees on its coverage detection quality. Our simulations show that the scheme accurately detects coverage holes of various sizes.

2012 Design of Efficient Multicast Protocol for IEEE 802.11n WLANs and Cross-Layer Optimization for Scalable Video StreamingThe legacy multicasting over IEEE 802.11-based WLANs has two well-known problems-poor reliability and low-rate transmission. In the literature, various WLAN multicast protocols have been proposed in order to overcome these problems. Existing multicast protocols, however, are not so efficient when they are used combining with the frame aggregation scheme of IEEE 802.11n. In this paper, we propose a novel MAC-level multicast protocol for IEEE 802.11n, named Reliable and Efficient Multicast Protocol (REMP). To enhance the reliability and efficiency of multicast services in IEEE 802.11n WLANs, REMP enables selective retransmissions for erroneous multicast frames and efficient adjustments of the modulation and coding scheme (MCS). In addition, we propose an extension of REMP, named scalable REMP (S-REMP), for efficient delivery of scalable video over IEEE 802.11n WLANs. In S-REMP, different MCSs are assigned to different layers of scalable video to guarantee the minimal video quality to all users while providing a higher video quality to users exhibiting better channel conditions. Our simulation results show that REMP outperforms existing multicast protocols for normal multicast traffic and S-REMP offers improved performance for scalable video streaming.2012 Differentiated Protection of Video Layers to Improve Perceived QualityScalable video transmission over a network is easily adaptable to different types of mobile experiencing different network conditions. However the transmission of differentiated video packets in an error-prone wireless environment remains problematic. We propose and analyze a cross-layer error control scheme that exploits priority-aware block interleaving (PBI) in the MAC layer for video broadcasting in CDMA2000 systems. The PBI scheme allocates a higher priority to protecting the data which are more critical to the decoding of a video stream, and therefore has more effect on picture quality in the application layer. The use of Reed-Solomon coding in conjunction with PBI in the MAC layer can handle error bursts more effectively if its implementation takes account of underlying error distributions in the physical layer, and differentiates between different types of video packets in the application layer. We also calculate the maximum jitter from the variability of the Reed-Solomon decoding delay and determine the size of jitter buffer needed to prevent interruptions due to buffer underrun. Simulations demonstrate the extent to which we can improve the perceived quality of scalable video.2012 Directed by Directionality Benefiting from the Gain Pattern of Active RFID BadgesTracking of people via active badges is important for location-aware computing and for security applications. However, the human body has a major effect on the antenna gain pattern of the device that the person is wearing. In this paper, the gain pattern due to the effect of the human body is experimentally measured and represented by a first-order directional gain pattern model. A method is presented to estimate the model parameters from multiple received signal strength (RSS) measurements. An alternating gain and position estimation (AGAPE) algorithm is proposed to jointly estimate the orientation and the position of the badge using RSS measurements at known-position anchor nodes. Lower bounds on mean squared error (MSE) and experimental results are presented that both show that the accuracy of position estimates can be greatly improved by including orientation estimates in the localization system. Next, we propose a new tracking filter that accepts orientation estimates as input, which we call the orientation-enhanced extended Kalman filter (OE-EKF), which improves tracking accuracy in active RFID tracking systems.

2012 Distributed and Online Fair Resource Management in Video Surveillance Sensor NetworksVisual capability introduced to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) render many novel applications that would otherwise be infeasible. However, unlike legacy WSNs which are commercially deployed in applications, visual sensor networks create additional research problems that delays the real-world implementations. Conveying real-time video streams over resource constrained sensor hardware remains to be a challenging task. As a remedy, we propose a fairness-based approach to enhance the event reporting and detection performance of the Video Surveillance Sensor Networks. Instead of achieving fairness only for flows or for nodes as investigated in the literature, we concentrate on the whole application requirement. Accordingly, our Event-Based Fairness (EBF) scheme aims at fair resource allocation for the application level messaging units called events. We identify the crucial network-wide resources as the in-queue processing turn of the frames and the channel access opportunities of the nodes. We show that fair treatment of events, as opposed to regular flow of frames, results in enhanced performance in terms of the number of frames reported per event and the reporting latency. EBF is a robust mechanism that can be used as a stand-alone or as a complementary method to other possible performance enhancement methods for video sensor networks implemented at other communication layers.

2012 Energy-Efficient Cooperative Video Distribution with Statistical QoS Provisions over Wireless NetworksFor real-time video broadcast where multiple users are interested in the same content, mobile-to-mobile cooperation can be utilized to improve delivery efficiency and reduce network utilization. Under such cooperation, however, real-time video transmission requires end-to-end delay bounds. Due to the inherently stochastic nature of wireless fading channels, deterministic delay bounds are prohibitively difficult to guarantee. For a scalable video structure, an alternative is to provide statistical guarantees using the concept of effective capacity/bandwidth by deriving quality of service exponents for each video layer. Using this concept, we formulate the resource allocation problem for general multihop multicast network flows and derive the optimal solution that minimizes the total energy consumption while guaranteeing a statistical end-to-end delay bound on each network path. A method is described to compute the optimal resource allocation at each node in a distributed fashion. Furthermore, we propose low complexity approximation algorithms for energy-efficient flow selection from the set of directed acyclic graphs forming the candidate network flows. The flow selection and resource allocation process is adapted for each video frame according to the channel conditions on the network links. Considering different network topologies, results demonstrate that the proposed resource allocation and flow selection algorithms provide notable performance gains with small optimality gaps at a low computational cost.2012 Enhancing Privacy and Accuracy in Probe Vehicle-Based Traffic Monitoring via Virtual Trip LinesTraffic monitoring using probe vehicles with GPS receivers promises significant improvements in cost, coverage, and accuracy over dedicated infrastructure systems. Current approaches, however, raise privacy concerns because they require participants to reveal their positions to an external traffic monitoring server. To address this challenge, we describe a system based on virtual trip lines and an associated cloaking technique, followed by another system design in which we relax the privacy requirements to maximize the accuracy of real-time traffic estimation. We introduce virtual trip lines which are geographic markers that indicate where vehicles should provide speed updates. These markers are placed to avoid specific privacy sensitive locations. They also allow aggregating and cloaking several location updates based on trip line identifiers, without knowing the actual geographic locations of these trip lines. Thus, they facilitate the design of a distributed architecture, in which no single entity has a complete knowledge of probe identities and fine-grained location information. We have implemented the system with GPS smartphone clients and conducted a controlled experiment with 100 phone-equipped drivers circling a highway segment, which was later extended into a year-long public deployment.

2012 Geometry and Motion-Based Positioning Algorithms for Mobile Tracking in NLOS EnvironmentsThis paper presents positioning algorithms for cellular network-based vehicle tracking in severe non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation scenarios. The aim of the algorithms is to enhance positional accuracy of network-based positioning systems when the GPS receiver does not perform well due to the complex propagation environment. A one-step position estimation method and another two-step method are proposed and developed. Constrained optimization is utilized to minimize the cost function which takes account of the NLOS error so that the NLOS effect is significantly reduced. Vehicle velocity and heading direction measurements are exploited in the algorithm development, which may be obtained using a speedometer and a heading sensor, respectively. The developed algorithms are practical so that they are suitable for implementation in practice for vehicle applications. It is observed through simulation that in severe NLOS propagation scenarios, the proposed positioning methods outperform the existing cellular network-based positioning algorithms significantly. Further, when the distance measurement error is modeled as the sum of an exponential bias variable and a Gaussian noise variable, the exact expressions of the CRLB are derived to benchmark the performance of the positioning algorithms.2012 On the Origins of Heavy-Tailed Delay in Dynamic Spectrum Access NetworksThis paper provides an asymptotic analysis of the transmission delay experienced by SUs for dynamic spectrum access (DSA) networks. It is shown that DSA induces only light-tailed delay if both the busy time of PU channels and the message size of SUs are light tailed. On the contrary, if either the busy time or the message size is heavy tailed, then the SUs’ transmission delay is heavy tailed. For this latter case, it is proven that if one of either the busy time or the message size is light tailed and the other is regularly varying with index α, the transmission delay is regularly varying with the same index. As a consequence, the delay has an infinite mean provided α <; 1 and an infinite variance provided α <; 2. Furthermore, if both the busy time and the message size are regularly varying with different indices, then the delay tail distribution is as heavy as the one with the smaller index. Moreover, the impact of spectrum mobility and multiradio diversity on the delay performance of SUs is studied. It is shown that both spectrum mobility and multiradio diversity can greatly mitigate the heavy-tailed delay by increasing the orders of its finite moments.

2012 Positional Accuracy Measurement and Error Modeling for Mobile TrackingThis paper presents a method of determining the statistical positional accuracy of a moving object being tracked by any 2D (but particularly radiolocation) positioning system without requiring a more accurate reference system. Commonly for testing performance only static positional errors are measured, but typically for radiolocation systems the positional performance is significantly different for moving objects compared with stationary objects. When only the overall statistical performance is required, the paper describes a measurement technique based on determining 1D cross-track errors from a nominal path, and then using this data set to determine the overall 2D positional error statistics. Comparison with simulated data shows that the method has good accuracy. The method is also tested with vehicle tracking in a city and people tracking within a building. For the indoor case, static and dynamic measurements allowed the degrading effect of body-worn devices due to signal blockage to be determined. Error modeling is also performed and a Rayleigh-Gamma model is proposed to describe the radial positional errors. It is shown that this model has a good match with both indoor and outdoor field measurements2012 ProSpect A Proactive Spectrum Handoff Framework for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks without Common Control ChannelCognitive Radio (CR) technology is a promising solution to enhance the spectrum utilization by enabling unlicensed users to exploit the spectrum in an opportunistic manner. Since unlicensed users are temporary visitors to the licensed spectrum, they are required to vacate the spectrum when a licensed user reclaims it. Due to the randomness of the appearance of licensed users, disruptions to both licensed and unlicensed communications are often difficult to prevent, which may lead to low throughput of both licensed and unlicensed communications. In this paper, a proactive spectrum handoff framework for CR ad hoc networks, ProSpect, is proposed to address these concerns. In the proposed framework, Channel-Switching (CW) policies and a proactive spectrum handoff protocol are proposed to let unlicensed users vacate a channel before a licensed user utilizes it to avoid unwanted interference. Network coordination schemes for unlicensed users are also incorporated into the spectrum handoff protocol design. Moreover, a distributed channel selection scheme to eliminate collisions among unlicensed users in a multiuser spectrum handoff scenario is proposed. In our proposed framework, unlicensed users coordinate with each other without using a Common Control Channel (CCC), which is highly adaptable in a spectrum-varying environment. We compare our proposed proactive spectrum handoff protocol with a reactive spectrum handoff protocol, under which unlicensed users switch channels after collisions with licensed transmissions occur. Simulation results show that our proactive spectrum handoff outperforms the reactive spectrum handoff approach in terms of higher throughput and fewer collisions to licensed users. Furthermore, our distributed channel selection can achieve higher packet delivery rate in a multiuser spectrum handoff scenario, compared with existing channel selection schemes.

2012 Protecting Location Privacy in Sensor Networks against a Global EavesdropperWhile many protocols for sensor network security provide confidentiality for the content of messages, contextual information usually remains exposed. Such contextual information can be exploited by an adversary to derive sensitive information such as the locations of monitored objects and data sinks in the field. Attacks on these components can significantly undermine any network application. Existing techniques defend the leakage of location information from a limited adversary who can only observe network traffic in a small region. However, a stronger adversary, the global eavesdropper, is realistic and can defeat these existing techniques. This paper first formalizes the location privacy issues in sensor networks under this strong adversary model and computes a lower bound on the communication overhead needed for achieving a given level of location privacy. The paper then proposes two techniques to provide location privacy to monitored objects (source-location privacy)-periodic collection and source simulation-and two techniques to provide location privacy to data sinks (sink-location privacy)-sink simulation and backbone flooding. These techniques provide trade-offs between privacy, communication cost, and latency. Through analysis and simulation, we demonstrate that the proposed techniques are efficient and effective for source and sink-location privacy in sensor networks.2012 Relay-Assisted Transmission with Fairness Constraint for Cellular NetworksWe consider the problem of relay-assisted transmission for cellular networks. In the considered system, a source node together with n relay nodes are selected in a proportionally fair (PF) manner to transmit to the base station (BS), which uses the maximal ratio combining (MRC) to combine the signals received from the source node in the first half slot and the n relay nodes in the second half slot for successful reception. The proposed algorithm incorporates the PF criterion and cooperative diversity, and is called proportionally fair cooperation (PFC). Compared with the proportional fair scheduling (PFS) algorithm, PFC provides improved efficiency and fairness. The ordinary differential equation (ODE) analysis used to study PFS cannot be used for PFC; otherwise, one has to solve a large number of nonlinear and interrelated ODE equations which is time prohibited. In this paper, we present a mathematical framework for the performance of PFC. The cornerstone of our framework is a realistic yet simple model that captures node cooperation, fading, and fair resource allocation-induced dependencies. We obtain analytical expressions for the throughput gain of PFC over traditional PFS without node cooperation. Compared with the highly time-consuming ordinary differential equation analysis, our formulae are intuitive yet easy to evaluate numerically. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a closed-form expression is obtained for the throughput of relay-assisted transmission in a cellular network with the PF constraint.2012 Resource-Aware Video Multicasting via Access Gateways in Wireless Mesh NetworksThis paper studies video multicasting in large-scale areas using wireless mesh networks. The focus is on the use of Internet access gateways that allow a choice of alternative routes to avoid potentially lengthy and low-capacity multihop wireless paths. A set of heuristic-based algorithms is described that together aim to maximize reliable network capacity: the two-tier integrated architecture algorithm, the weighted gateway uploading algorithm, the link-controlled routing tree algorithm, and the dynamic group management algorithm. These algorithms use different approaches to arrange nodes involved in video multicasting into a clustered and two-tier integrated architecture in which network protocols can make use of multiple gateways to improve system throughput. Simulation results are presented, showing that our multicasting algorithms can achieve up to 40 percent more throughput than other related published approaches2012 Risk-Aware Distributed Beacon Scheduling for Tree-Based ZigBee Wireless NetworksIn a tree-based ZigBee network, ZigBee routers (ZRs) must schedule their beacon transmission time to avoid beacon collisions. The beacon schedule determines packet delivery latency from the end devices to the ZigBee coordinator at the root of the tree. Traditionally, beacon schedules are chosen such that a ZR does not reuse the beacon slots already claimed by its neighbors, or the neighbors of its neighbors. We observe, however, that beacon slots can be reused judiciously, especially when the risk of beacon collision caused by such reuse is low. The advantage of such reuse is that packet delivery latency can be reduced. We formalize our observation by proposing a node-pair classification scheme. Based on this scheme, we can easily assess the risk of slot reuse by a node pair. If the risk is high, slot reuse is disallowed; otherwise, slot reuse is allowed. This forms the essence of our ZigBee-compatible, distributed, risk-aware, probabilistic beacon scheduling algorithm. Simulation results show that on average the proposed algorithm produces a latency only 24 percent of that with conventional method, at the cost of 12 percent reduction in the fraction of associated nodes.

2012 Scalable Activity-Travel Pattern Monitoring Framework for Large-Scale City EnvironmentIn this paper, we introduce Activity Travel Pattern (ATP) monitoring in a large-scale city environment. ATP represents where city residents and vehicles stay and how they travel around in a complex megacity. Monitoring ATP will incubate new types of value-added services such as predictive mobile advertisement, demand forecasting for urban stores, and adaptive transportation scheduling. To enable ATP monitoring, we develop ActraMon, a high-performanceATP monitoring framework. As a first step, ActraMon provides a simple but effective computational model of ATP and a declarative query language facilitating effective specification of various ATP monitoring queries. More important, ActraMon employs the shared staging architecture and highly efficient processing techniques, which address the scalability challenges caused by massive location updates, a number of ATP monitoring queries and processing complexity of ATP monitoring. Finally, we demonstrate the extensive performance study of ActraMon using realistic city-wide ATP workloads2012 Secure Initialization of Multiple Constrained Wireless Devices for an Unaided UserA number of protocols and mechanisms have been proposed to address the problem of initial secure key deployment in wireless networks. Most existing approaches work either with a small number of wireless devices (i.e., two) or otherwise rely on the presence of an auxiliary device (such as a programmable camera, computer, or Faraday cage). In this paper, we design a solution that allows a user unaided initialization (free from auxiliary devices) of a relatively large number of wireless devices. The proposed solution is based on a novel multichannel Group message Authentication Protocol (GAP), in which information is transmitted over both a radio and a visible light channel (VLC). A notable feature of GAP is that the information to be authenticated is independent of the short authentication stringo be verified by the user (an indirect binding protocol [28]). This, as we show, results in a lower communication cost compared to existing direct binding protocols. The advantage in terms of the communication cost of our GAP protocol is especially important for power-constrained devices, such as wireless sensor motes. Another appealing feature of GAP is that it is secure in the attacker model where the VLC is semiauthentic, whereas existing protocols consider VLC to be authentic. This is made possible by using joint Manchester-Berger unidirectional error-detection codes that are secure and easy to interpret by a nonspecialist and unaided end user. Our overall key deployment mechanism has minimal hardware requirements: one LED, one button and, of course, a radio transceiver, and is thus suitable for initializing devices with constrained interfaces, such as (multiple) wireless sensor motes. We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method via a preliminary usability study. The study indicates that the method has reasonably low execution time, minimal error rate, and is user friendly.2012 Shaping Throughput Profiles in Multihop Wireless Networks A Resource-Biasing ApproachA fundamental question in multihop wireless network protocol design is how to partition the network’s transport capacity among contending flows. A classically “fair” allocation leads to poor throughput performance for all flows because connections that traverse a large number of hops (i.e., long connections) consume a disproportionate share of resources. However, naïvely biasing against longer connections can lead to poor network utilization, because a significantly high fraction of total connections are long in large networks with spatially uniform traffic. While proportional fair allocation provides a significant improvement, we show here that there is a much richer space of resource allocation strategies for introducing a controlled bias against resource-intensive long connections in order to significantly improve the performance of shorter connections. Specifically, mixing strongly biased allocations with fairer allocations leads to efficient network utilization as well as a superior trade-off between flow throughput and fairness. We present an analytical model that offers insight into the impact of a particular resource allocation strategy on network performance, taking into account finite network size and spatial traffic patterns. We point to protocol design options to implement our resource allocation strategies by invoking the connection with the well-studied network utility maximization framework. Our simulation evaluation serves to verify the analytical design prescriptions.2012

 

TECHNOLOGY                               : DOT NET

 

DOMAIN                                           : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
Semi supervised Biased Maximum Margin Analysis for Interactive Image Retrieval In this paper, we propose a biased maximum margin analysis (BMMA) and a semi supervised BMMA (SemiBMMA) for integrating the distinct properties of feedbacks and utilizing the information of unlabeled samples for SVM-based RF schemes For Image Retrieval process. 2012
Scalable Coding of Encrypted Images This paper proposes a novel scheme of scalable coding for encrypted images. In the encryption phase, the original pixel values are masked by a modulo-256 addition with pseudorandom numbers that are derived from a secret key. Then, the data of quantized sub image and coefficients are regarded as a set of bit streams. 2012
PDE-Based Enhancement of Color Images in RGB Space The proposed model is based on using the single vectors of the gradient magnitude and the second derivatives as a manner to relate different color components of the image. This model can be viewed as a generalization of the Bettahar–Stambouli filter to multivalued images. The proposed algorithm is more efficient than the mentioned filter and some previous works at color images denoising and deblurring without creating false colors 2012
3-D Discrete Shearlet Transform and Video Processing In this paper, we introduce a digital implementation of the 3-D shearlet transform and illustrate its application to problems of video denoising and enhancement. The shearlet representation is a multiscale pyramid of well-localized waveforms defined at various locations and orientations, which was introduced to overcome the limitations of traditional multiscale systems in dealing with multidimensional data. While the shearlet approach shares the general philosophy of curvelets and surfacelets, it is based on a very different mathematical framework, which is derived from the theory of affine systems and uses shearing matrices rather than rotations. This allows a natural transition from the continuous setting to the digital setting and a more flexible mathematical structure. The 3-D digital shearlet transform algorithm presented in this paper consists in a cascade of a multiscale decomposition and a directional filtering stage. The filters employed in this decomposition are implemented as finite-length filters, and this ensures that the transform is local and numerically efficient. To illustrate its performance, the 3-D discrete shearlet transform is applied to problems of video denoising and enhancement, and compared against other state-of-the-art multiscale techniques, including curvelets and surfacelets. 2012
A Generalized Logarithmic Image Processing Model Based on the Gigavision Sensor Model The logarithmic image processing (LIP) model is a mathematical theory providing generalized linear operations for image processing. The gigavision sensor (GVS) is a new imaging device that can be described by a statistical model. In this paper, by studying these two seemingly unrelated models, we develop a generalized LIP (GLIP) model. With the LIP model being its special case, the GLIP model not only provides new insights into the LIP model but also defines new image representations and operations for solving general image processing problems that are not necessarily related to the GVS. A new parametric LIP model is also developed. To illustrate the application of the new scalar multiplication operation, we propose an energy-preserving algorithm for tone mapping, which is a necessary step in image dehazing. By comparing with results using two state-of-the-art algorithms, we show that the new scalar multiplication operation is an effective tool for tone mapping.

2012 A Kalman-Filtering Approach to High Dynamic Range Imaging for Measurement ApplicationsHigh dynamic range imaging (HDRI) methods in computational photography address situations where the dynamic range of a scene exceeds what can be captured by an image sensor in a single exposure. HDRI techniques have also been used to construct radiance maps in measurement applications; unfortunately, the design and evaluation of HDRI algorithms for use in these applications have received little attention. In this paper, we develop a novel HDRI technique based on pixel-by-pixel Kalman filtering and evaluate its performance using objective metrics that this paper also introduces. In the presented experiments, this new technique achieves as much as 9.4-dB improvement in signal-to-noise ratio and can achieve as much as a 29% improvement in radiometric accuracy over a classic method.2012 A Parametric Level-Set Approach to Simultaneous Object Identification and Background Reconstruction for Dual-Energy Computed TomographyDual-energy computerized tomography has gained great interest because of its ability to characterize the chemical composition of a material rather than simply providing relative attenuation images as in conventional tomography. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel polychromatic dual-energy processing algorithm, with an emphasis on detection and characterization of piecewise constant objects embedded in an unknown cluttered background. Physical properties of the objects, particularly the Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption coefficients, are assumed to be known with some level of uncertainty. Our approach is based on a level-set representation of the characteristic function of the object and encompasses a number of regularization techniques for addressing both the prior information we have concerning the physical properties of the object and the fundamental physics-based limitations associated with our ability to jointly recover the Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption properties of the scene. In the absence of an object with appropriate physical properties, our approach returns a null characteristic function and, thus, can be viewed as simultaneously solving the detection and characterization problems. Unlike the vast majority of methods that define the level-set function nonparametrically, i.e., as a dense set of pixel values, we define our level set parametrically via radial basis functions and employ a Gauss-Newton-type algorithm for cost minimization. Numerical results show that the algorithm successfully detects objects of interest, finds their shape and location, and gives an adequate reconstruction of the background.2012 A Surface-Based 3-D Dendritic Spine Detection Approach From Confocal Microscopy ImagesDetermining the relationship between the dendritic spine morphology and its functional properties is a fundamental challenge in neurobiology research. In particular, how to accurately and automatically analyse meaningful structural information from a large microscopy image data set is far away from being resolved. As pointed out in existing literature, one remaining challenge in spine detection and segmentation is how to automatically separate touching spines. In this paper, based on various global and local geometric features of the dendrite structure, we propose a novel approach to detect and segment neuronal spines, in particular, a breaking-down and stitching-up algorithm to accurately separate touching spines. Extensive performance comparisons show that our approach is more accurate and robust than two state-of-the-art spine detection and segmentation algorithms.2012 A Variational Method for Multiple-Image BlendingThe main aim of this paper is to develop an algorithm for blending of multiple images in the image-stitching process. Our idea is to propose a variational method containing an energy functional to determine both a stitched image and weighting mask functions of multiple input images for image blending. The existence of the solution of the proposed energy functional is shown. We also present an alternative minimizing algorithm to solve the proposed model numerically and show the convergence of this algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed model works effectively and efficiently and that the proposed method is competitive with the tested existing methods under noisy conditions.

2012 Algorithms for the Digital Restoration of Torn FilmsThis paper presents algorithms for the digital restoration of films damaged by tear. As well as causing local image data loss, a tear results in a noticeable relative shift in the frame between the regions at either side of the tear boundary. This paper describes a method for delineating the tear boundary and for correcting the displacement. This is achieved using a graph-cut segmentation framework that can be either automatic or interactive when automatic segmentation is not possible. Using temporal intensity differences to form the boundary conditions for the segmentation facilitates the robust division of the frame. The resulting segmentation map is used to calculate and correct the relative displacement using a global-motion estimation approach based on motion histograms. A high-quality restoration is obtained when a suitable missing-data treatment algorithm is used to recover any missing pixel intensities.2012 An Edge-Adapting Laplacian Kernel For Nonlinear Diffusion FiltersIn this paper, first, a new Laplacian kernel is developed to integrate into it the anisotropic behavior to control the process of forward diffusion in horizontal and vertical directions. It is shown that, although the new kernel reduces the process of edge distortion, it nonetheless produces artifacts in the processed image. After examining the source of this problem, an analytical scheme is devised to obtain a spatially varying kernel that adapts itself to the diffusivity function. The proposed spatially varying Laplacian kernel is then used in various nonlinear diffusion filters starting from the classical Perona-Malik filter to the more recent ones. The effectiveness of the new kernel in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures is demonstrated by applying it to noisy images.2012 Automatic Image Equalization and Contrast Enhancement Using Gaussian Mixture ModelingIn this paper, we propose an adaptive image equalization algorithm that automatically enhances the contrast in an input image. The algorithm uses the Gaussian mixture model to model the image gray-level distribution, and the intersection points of the Gaussian components in the model are used to partition the dynamic range of the image into input gray-level intervals. The contrast equalized image is generated by transforming the pixels’ gray levels in each input interval to the appropriate output gray-level interval according to the dominant Gaussian component and the cumulative distribution function of the input interval. To take account of the hypothesis that homogeneous regions in the image represent homogeneous silences (or set of Gaussian components) in the image histogram, the Gaussian components with small variances are weighted with smaller values than the Gaussian components with larger variances, and the gray-level distribution is also used to weight the components in the mapping of the input interval to the output interval. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm produces better or comparable enhanced images than several state-of-the-art algorithms. Unlike the other algorithms, the proposed algorithm is free of parameter setting for a given dynamic range of the enhanced image and can be applied to a wide range of image types.2012 Bayesian Texture Classification Based on Contourlet Transform and BYY Harmony Learning of Poisson MixturesAs a newly developed 2-D extension of the wavelet transform using multiscale and directional filter banks, the contourlet transform can effectively capture the intrinsic geometric structures and smooth contours of a texture image that are the dominant features for texture classification. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian texture classifier based on the adaptive model-selection learning of Poisson mixtures on the contourlet features of texture images. The adaptive model-selection learning of Poisson mixtures is carried out by the recently established adaptive gradient Bayesian Ying-Yang harmony learning algorithm for Poisson mixtures. It is demonstrated by the experiments that our proposed Bayesian classifier significantly improves the texture classification accuracy in comparison with several current state-of-the-art texture classification approaches.2012 BM3D Frames and Variational Image DeblurringA family of the block matching 3-D (BM3D) algorithms for various imaging problems has been recently proposed within the framework of nonlocal patchwise image modeling , . In this paper, we construct analysis and synthesis frames, formalizing BM3D image modeling, and use these frames to develop novel iterative deblurring algorithms. We consider two different formulations of the deblurring problem, i.e., one given by the minimization of the single-objective function and another based on the generalized Nash equilibrium (GNE) balance of two objective functions. The latter results in the algorithm where deblurring and denoising operations are decoupled. The convergence of the developed algorithms is proved. Simulation experiments show that the decoupled algorithm derived from the GNE formulation demonstrates the best numerical and visual results and shows superiority with respect to the state of the art in the field, confirming a valuable potential of BM3D-frames as an advanced image modeling tool.2012 Counting People With Low-Level Features and Bayesian RegressionAn approach to the problem of estimating the size of inhomogeneous crowds, which are composed of pedestrians that travel in different directions, without using explicit object segmentation or tracking is proposed. Instead, the crowd is segmented into components of homogeneous motion, using the mixture of dynamic-texture motion model. A set of holistic low-level features is extracted from each segmented region, and a function that maps features into estimates of the number of people per segment is learned with Bayesian regression. Two Bayesian regression models are examined. The first is a combination of Gaussian process regression with a compound kernel, which accounts for both the global and local trends of the count mapping but is limited by the real-valued outputs that do not match the discrete counts. We address this limitation with a second model, which is based on a Bayesian treatment of Poisson regression that introduces a prior distribution on the linear weights of the model. Since exact inference is analytically intractable, a closed-form approximation is derived that is computationally efficient and kernelizable, enabling the representation of nonlinear functions. An approximate marginal likelihood is also derived for kernel hyperparameter learning. The two regression-based crowd counting methods are evaluated on a large pedestrian data set, containing very distinct camera views, pedestrian traffic, and outliers, such as bikes or skateboarders. Experimental results show that regression-based counts are accurate regardless of the crowd size, outperforming the count estimates produced by state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors. Results on 2 h of video demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the regression-based crowd size estimation over long periods of time.

2012 Curved-Region-Based Ridge Frequency Estimation and Curved Gabor Filters for Fingerprint Image EnhancementGabor filters (GFs) play an important role in many application areas for the enhancement of various types of images and the extraction of Gabor features. For the purpose of enhancing curved structures in noisy images, we introduce curved GFs that locally adapt their shape to the direction of flow. These curved GFs enable the choice of filter parameters that increase the smoothing power without creating artifacts in the enhanced image. In this paper, curved GFs are applied to the curved ridge and valley structures of low-quality fingerprint images. First, we combine two orientation-field estimation methods in order to obtain a more robust estimation for very noisy images. Next, curved regions are constructed by following the respective local orientation. Subsequently, these curved regions are used for estimating the local ridge frequency. Finally, curved GFs are defined based on curved regions, and they apply the previously estimated orientations and ridge frequencies for the enhancement of low-quality fingerprint images. Experimental results on the FVC2004 databases show improvements of this approach in comparison with state-of-the-art enhancement methods.2012 Design and Optimization of Color Lookup Tables on a Simplex TopologyAn important computational problem in color imaging is the design of color transforms that map color between devices or from a device-dependent space (e.g., RGB/CMYK) to a device-independent space (e.g., CIELAB) and vice versa. Real-time processing constraints entail that such nonlinear color transforms be implemented using multidimensional lookup tables (LUTs). Furthermore, relatively sparse LUTs (with efficient interpolation) are employed in practice because of storage and memory constraints. This paper presents a principled design methodology rooted in constrained convex optimization to design color LUTs on a simplex topology. The use of n simplexes, i.e., simplexes in n dimensions, as opposed to traditional lattices, recently has been of great interest in color LUT design for simplex topologies that allow both more analytically tractable formulations and greater efficiency in the LUT. In this framework of n-simplex interpolation, our central contribution is to develop an elegant iterative algorithm that jointly optimizes the placement of nodes of the color LUT and the output values at those nodes to minimize interpolation error in an expected sense. This is in contrast to existing work, which exclusively designs either node locations or the output values. We also develop new analytical results for the problem of node location optimization, which reduces to constrained optimization of a large but sparse interpolation matrix in our framework. We evaluate our n -simplex color LUTs against the state-of-the-art lattice (e.g., International Color Consortium profiles) and simplex-based techniques for approximating two representative multidimensional color transforms that characterize a CMYK xerographic printer and an RGB scanner, respectively. The results show that color LUTs designed on simplexes offer very significant benefits over traditional lattice-based alternatives in improving color transform accuracy even with a much smaller number- of nodes.2012 Edge Strength Filter Based Color Filter Array InterpolationFor economic reasons, most digital cameras use color filter arrays instead of beam splitters to capture image data. As a result of this, only one of the required three color samples becomes available at each pixel location and the other two need to be interpolated. This process is called Color Filter Array (CFA) interpolation or demosaicing. Many demosaicing algorithms have been introduced over the years to improve subjective and objective interpolation quality. We propose an orientation-free edge strength filter and apply it to the demosaicing problem. Edge strength filter output is utilized both to improve the initial green channel interpolation and to apply the constant color difference rule adaptively. This simple edge directed method yields visually pleasing results with high CPSNR.

2012 Face Identification Using Large Feature SetsWith the goal of matching unknown faces against a gallery of known people, the face identification task has been studied for several decades. There are very accurate techniques to perform face identification in controlled environments, particularly when large numbers of samples are available for each face. However, face identification under uncontrolled environments or with a lack of training data is still an unsolved problem. We employ a large and rich set of feature descriptors (with more than 70 000 descriptors) for face identification using partial least squares to perform multichannel feature weighting. Then, we extend the method to a tree-based discriminative structure to reduce the time required to evaluate probe samples. The method is evaluated on Facial Recognition Technology (FERET) and Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) data sets. Experiments show that our identification method outperforms current state-of-the-art results, particularly for identifying faces acquired across varying conditions.2012 Fast Wavelet-Based Image Characterization for Highly Adaptive Image RetrievalAdaptive wavelet-based image characterizations have been proposed in previous works for content-based image retrieval (CBIR) applications. In these applications, the same wavelet basis was used to characterize each query image: This wavelet basis was tuned to maximize the retrieval performance in a training data set. We take it one step further in this paper: A different wavelet basis is used to characterize each query image. A regression function, which is tuned to maximize the retrieval performance in the training data set, is used to estimate the best wavelet filter, i.e., in terms of expected retrieval performance, for each query image. A simple image characterization, which is based on the standardized moments of the wavelet coefficient distributions, is presented. An algorithm is proposed to compute this image characterization almost instantly for every possible separable or nonseparable wavelet filter. Therefore, using a different wavelet basis for each query image does not considerably increase computation times. On the other hand, significant retrieval performance increases were obtained in a medical image data set, a texture data set, a face recognition data set, and an object picture data set. This additional flexibility in wavelet adaptation paves the way to relevance feedback on image characterization itself and not simply on the way image characterizations are combined.2012 Gradient-Directed Multiexposure CompositionIn this paper, we present a simple yet effective method that takes advantage of the gradient information to accomplish the multiexposure image composition in both static and dynamic scenes. Given multiple images with different exposures, the proposed approach is capable of producing a pleasant tone-mapped-like high-dynamic-range image by compositing them seamlessly with the guidance of gradient-based quality assessment. In particular, two novel quality measures, namely, visibility and consistency, are developed based on the observations of gradient changes among different exposures. Experiments in various static and dynamic scenes are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.2012 Group-Sensitive Multiple Kernel Learning for Object RecognitionIn this paper, a group-sensitive multiple kernel learning (GS-MKL) method is proposed for object recognition to accommodate the intraclass diversity and the interclass correlation. By introducing the “group” between the object category and individual images as an intermediate representation, GS-MKL attempts to learn group-sensitive multikernel combinations together with the associated classifier. For each object category, the image corpus from the same category is partitioned into groups. Images with similar appearance are partitioned into the same group, which corresponds to the subcategory of the object category. Accordingly, intraclass diversity can be represented by the set of groups from the same category but with diverse appearances; interclass correlation can be represented by the correlation between groups from different categories. GS-MKL provides a tractable solution to adapt multikernel combination to local data distribution and to seek a tradeoff between capturing the diversity and keeping the invariance for each object category. Different from the simple hybrid grouping strategy that solves sample grouping and GS-MKL training independently, two sample grouping strategies are proposed to integrate sample grouping and GS-MKL training. The first one is a looping hybrid grouping method, where a global kernel clustering method and GS-MKL interact with each other by sharing group-sensitive multikernel combination. The second one is a dynamic divisive grouping method, where a hierarchical kernel-based grouping process interacts with GS-MKL. Experimental results show that performance of GS-MKL does not significantly vary with different grouping strategies, but the looping hybrid grouping method produces slightly better results. On four challenging data sets, our proposed method has achieved encouraging performance comparable to the state-of-the-art and outperformed several existing MKL methods.2012 Hessian-Based Norm Regularization for Image Restoration With Biomedical ApplicationsWe present nonquadratic Hessian-based regularization methods that can be effectively used for image restoration problems in a variational framework. Motivated by the great success of the total-variation (TV) functional, we extend it to also include second-order differential operators. Specifically, we derive second-order regularizers that involve matrix norms of the Hessian operator. The definition of these functionals is based on an alternative interpretation of TV that relies on mixed norms of directional derivatives. We show that the resulting regularizers retain some of the most favorable properties of TV, i.e., convexity, homogeneity, rotation, and translation invariance, while dealing effectively with the staircase effect. We further develop an efficient minimization scheme for the corresponding objective functions. The proposed algorithm is of the iteratively reweighted least-square type and results from a majorization-minimization approach. It relies on a problem-specific preconditioned conjugate gradient method, which makes the overall minimization scheme very attractive since it can be applied effectively to large images in a reasonable computational time. We validate the overall proposed regularization framework through deblurring experiments under additive Gaussian noise on standard and biomedical images.2012 Human Gait Recognition Using Patch Distribution Feature and Locality-Constrained Group Sparse RepresentationIn this paper, we propose a new patch distribution feature (PDF) (i.e., referred to as Gabor-PDF) for human gait recognition. We represent each gait energy image (GEI) as a set of local augmented Gabor features, which concatenate the Gabor features extracted from different scales and different orientations together with the X-Y coordinates. We learn a global Gaussian mixture model (GMM) (i.e., referred to as the universal background model) with the local augmented Gabor features from all the gallery GEIs; then, each gallery or probe GEI is further expressed as the normalized parameters of an image-specific GMM adapted from the global GMM. Observing that one video is naturally represented as a group of GEIs, we also propose a new classification method called locality-constrained group sparse representation (LGSR) to classify each probe video by minimizing the weighted l1, 2 mixed-norm-regularized reconstruction error with respect to the gallery videos. In contrast to the standard group sparse representation method that is a special case of LGSR, the group sparsity and local smooth sparsity constraints are both enforced in LGSR. Our comprehensive experiments on the benchmark USF HumanID database demonstrate the effectiveness of the newly proposed feature Gabor-PDF and the new classification method LGSR for human gait recognition. Moreover, LGSR using the new feature Gabor-PDF achieves the best average Rank-1 and Rank-5 recognition rates on this database among all gait recognition algorithms proposed to date.2012 Image Editing With Spatiograms TransferHistogram equalization is a well-known method for image contrast enhancement. Nevertheless, as histograms do not include any information on the spatial repartition of colors, their application to local image editing problems remains limited. To cope with this lack of spatial information, spatiograms have been recently proposed for tracking purposes. A spatiogram is an image descriptor that combines a histogram with the mean and the variance of the position of each color. In this paper, we address the problem of local retouching of images by proposing a variational method for spatiogram transfer. More precisely, a reference spatiogram is used to modify the color value of a given region of interest of the processed image. Experiments on shadow removal and inpainting demonstrate the strength of the proposed approach.2012 Image Quality Assessment by Visual Gradient SimilarityA full-reference image quality assessment (IQA) model by multiscale visual gradient similarity (VGS) is presented. The VGS model adopts a three-stage approach: First, global contrast registration for each scale is applied. Then, pointwise comparison is given by multiplying the similarity of gradient direction with the similarity of gradient magnitude. Third, intrascale pooling is applied, followed by interscale pooling. Several properties of human visual systems on image gradient have been explored and incorporated into the VGS model. It has been found that Stevens’ power law is also suitable for gradient magnitude. Other factors such as quality uniformity, visual detection threshold of gradient, and visual frequency sensitivity also affect subjective image quality. The optimal values of two parameters of VGS are trained with existing IQA databases, and good performance of VGS has been verified by cross validation. Experimental results show that VGS is competitive with state-of-the-art metrics in terms of prediction precision, reliability, simplicity, and low computational cost.2012 Improving Various Reversible Data Hiding Schemes Via Optimal Codes for Binary CoversIn reversible data hiding (RDH), the original cover can be losslessly restored after the embedded information is extracted. Kalker and Willems established a rate-distortion model for RDH, in which they proved out the rate-distortion bound and proposed a recursive code construction. In our previous paper, we improved the recursive construction to approach the rate-distortion bound. In this paper, we generalize the method in our previous paper using a decompression algorithm as the coding scheme for embedding data and prove that the generalized codes can reach the rate-distortion bound as long as the compression algorithm reaches entropy. By the proposed binary codes, we improve three RDH schemes that use binary feature sequence as covers, i.e., an RS scheme for spatial images, one scheme for JPEG images, and a pattern substitution scheme for binary images. The experimental results show that the novel codes can significantly reduce the embedding distortion. Furthermore, by modifying the histogram shift (HS) manner, we also apply this coding method to one scheme that uses HS, showing that the proposed codes can be also exploited to improve integer-operation-based schemes.2012 Iterative Channel Decoding of FEC-Based Multiple-Description CodesMultiple description coding has been receiving attention as a robust transmission framework for multimedia services. This paper studies the iterative decoding of FEC-based multiple description codes. The proposed decoding algorithms take advantage of the error detection capability of Reed-Solomon (RS) erasure codes. The information of correctly decoded RS codewords is exploited to enhance the error correction capability of the Viterbi algorithm at the next iteration of decoding. In the proposed algorithm, an intradescription interleaver is synergistically combined with the iterative decoder. The interleaver does not affect the performance of noniterative decoding but greatly enhances the performance when the system is iteratively decoded. We also address the optimal allocation of RS parity symbols for unequal error protection. For the optimal allocation in iterative decoding, we derive mathematical equations from which the probability distributions of description erasures can be generated in a simple way. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated over an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing system. The results show that the performance of the multiple description codes is significantly enhanced.2012 Local Tetra Patterns A New Feature Descriptor for Content-Based Image RetrievalIn this paper, we propose a novel image indexing and retrieval algorithm using local tetra patterns (LTrPs) for content-based image retrieval (CBIR). The standard local binary pattern (LBP) and local ternary pattern (LTP) encode the relationship between the referenced pixel and its surrounding neighbors by computing gray-level difference. The proposed method encodes the relationship between the referenced pixel and its neighbors, based on the directions that are calculated using the first-order derivatives in vertical and horizontal directions. In addition, we propose a generic strategy to compute nth-order LTrP using (n – 1)th-order horizontal and vertical derivatives for efficient CBIR and analyze the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm by combining it with the Gabor transform. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the LBP, the local derivative patterns, and the LTP based on the results obtained using benchmark image databases viz., Corel 1000 database (DB1), Brodatz texture database (DB2), and MIT VisTex database (DB3). Performance analysis shows that the proposed method improves the retrieval result from 70.34%/44.9% to 75.9%/48.7% in terms of average precision/average recall on database DB1, and from 79.97% to 85.30% and 82.23% to 90.02% in terms of average retrieval rate on databases DB2 and DB3, respectively, as compared with the standard LBP.2012 Methodology for Reconstructing Early Zebrafish Development From In Vivo Multiphoton MicroscopyInvestigating cell dynamics during early zebrafish embryogenesis requires specific image acquisition and analysis strategies. Multiharmonic microscopy, i.e., second- and third-harmonic generations, allows imaging cell divisions and cell membranes in unstained zebrafish embryos from 1- to 1000-cell stage. This paper presents the design and implementation of a dedicated image processing pipeline (tracking and segmentation) for the reconstruction of cell dynamics during these developmental stages. This methodology allows the reconstruction of the cell lineage tree including division timings, spatial coordinates, and cell shape until the 1000-cell stage with minute temporal accuracy and micrometer spatial resolution. Data analysis of the digital embryos provides an extensive quantitative description of early zebrafish embryogenesis.

 

2012 Multiple Exposure Fusion for High Dynamic Range Image AcquisitionA multiple exposure fusion to enhance the dynamic range of an image is proposed. The construction of high dynamic range images (HDRIs) is performed by combining multiple images taken with different exposures and estimating the irradiance value for each pixel. This is a common process for HDRI acquisition. During this process, displacements of the images caused by object movements often yield motion blur and ghosting artifacts. To address the problem, this paper presents an efficient and accurate multiple exposure fusion technique for the HDRI acquisition. Our method simultaneously estimates displacements and occlusion and saturation regions by using maximum a posteriori estimation and constructs motion-blur-free HDRIs. We also propose a new weighting scheme for the multiple image fusion. We demonstrate that our HDRI acquisition algorithm is accurate, even for images with large motion.2012 Nonrigid Brain MR Image Registration Using Uniform Spherical Region DescriptorThere are two main issues that make nonrigid image registration a challenging task. First, voxel intensity similarity may not be necessarily equivalent to anatomical similarity in the image correspondence searching process. Second, during the imaging process, some interferences such as unexpected rotations of input volumes and monotonic gray-level bias fields can adversely affect the registration quality. In this paper, a new feature-based nonrigid image registration method is proposed. The proposed method is based on a new type of image feature, namely, uniform spherical region descriptor (USRD), as signatures for each voxel. The USRD is rotation and monotonic gray-level transformation invariant and can be efficiently calculated. The registration process is therefore formulated as a feature matching problem. The USRD feature is integrated with the Markov random field labeling framework in which energy function is defined for registration. The energy function is then optimized by the α-expansion algorithm. The proposed method has been compared with five state-of-the-art registration approaches on both the simulated and real 3-D databases obtained from the BrainWeb and Internet Brain Segmentation Repository, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve high registration accuracy and reliable robustness behavior.2012 On the Construction of Topology-Preserving Deformation FieldsIn this paper, we investigate a new method to enforce topology preservation on deformation fields. The method is composed of two steps. The first one consists in correcting the gradient vector fields of the deformation at the discrete level, in order to fulfill a set of conditions ensuring topology preservation in the continuous domain after bilinear interpolation. This part, although related to prior works by Karaçali and Davatzikos, proposes a new approach based on interval analysis. The second one aims to reconstruct the deformation, given its full set of discrete gradient vectors. The problem is phrased as a functional minimization problem on the convex subset K of the Hilbert space V. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of the problem are established, and the use of Lagrange’s multipliers allows to obtain the variational formulation of the problem on the Hilbert space V . Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the method.

2012 Onboard Low-Complexity Compression of Solar Stereo ImagesWe propose an adaptive distributed compression solution using particle filtering that tracks correlation, as well as performing disparity estimation, at the decoder side. The proposed algorithm is tested on the stereo solar images captured by the twin satellites system of NASA’s Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) project. Our experimental results show improved compression performance w.r.t. to a benchmark compression scheme, accurate correlation estimation by our proposed particle-based belief propagation algorithm, and significant peak signal-to-noise ratio improvement over traditional separate bit-plane decoding without dynamic correlation and disparity estimation.2012 Patch-Based Near-Optimal Image DenoisingIn this paper, we propose a denoising method motivated by our previous analysis of the performance bounds for image denoising. Insights from that study are used here to derive a high-performance practical denoising algorithm. We propose a patch-based Wiener filter that exploits patch redundancy for image denoising. Our framework uses both geometrically and photometrically similar patches to estimate the different filter parameters. We describe how these parameters can be accurately estimated directly from the input noisy image. Our denoising approach, designed for near-optimal performance (in the mean-squared error sense), has a sound statistical foundation that is analyzed in detail. The performance of our approach is experimentally verified on a variety of images and noise levels. The results presented here demonstrate that our proposed method is on par or exceeding the current state of the art, both visually and quantitatively.2012 Precision-Aware Self-Quantizing Hardware Architectures for the Discrete Wavelet TransformThis paper presents designs for both bit-parallel (BP) and digit-serial (DS) precision-optimized implementations of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), with specific consideration given to the impact of depth (the number of levels of DWT) on the overall computational accuracy. These methods thus allow customizing the precision of a multilevel DWT to a given error tolerance requirement and ensuring an energy-minimal implementation, which increases the applicability of DWT-based algorithms such as JPEG 2000 to energy-constrained platforms and environments. Additionally, quantization of DWT coefficients to a specific target step size is performed as an inherent part of the DWT computation, thereby eliminating the need to have a separate downstream quantization step in applications such as JPEG 2000. Experimental measurements of design performance in terms of area, speed, and power for 90-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor implementation are presented. Results indicate that while BP designs exhibit inherent speed advantages, DS designs require significantly fewer hardware resources with increasing precision and DWT level. A four-level DWT with medium precision, for example, while the BP design is four times faster than the digital-serial design, occupies twice the area. In addition to the BP and DS designs, a novel flexible DWT processor is presented, which supports run-time configurable DWT parameters2012 Scalable Coding of Encrypted ImagesThis paper proposes a novel scheme of scalable coding for encrypted images. In the encryption phase, the original pixel values are masked by a modulo-256 addition with pseudorandom numbers that are derived from a secret key. After decomposing the encrypted data into a downsampled subimage and several data sets with a multiple-resolution construction, an encoder quantizes the subimage and the Hadamard coefficients of each data set to reduce the data amount. Then, the data of quantized subimage and coefficients are regarded as a set of bitstreams. At the receiver side, while a subimage is decrypted to provide the rough information of the original content, the quantized coefficients can be used to reconstruct the detailed content with an iteratively updating procedure. Because of the hierarchical coding mechanism, the principal original content with higher resolution can be reconstructed when more bitstreams are received.2012 Removing Label Ambiguity in Learning-Based Visual Saliency EstimationVisual saliency is a useful clue to depict visually important image/video contents in many multimedia applications. In visual saliency estimation, a feasible solution is to learn a “feature-saliency” mapping model from the user data obtained by manually labeling activities or eye-tracking devices. However, label ambiguities may also arise due to the inaccurate and inadequate user data. To process the noisy training data, we propose a multi-instance learning to rank approach for visual saliency estimation. In our approach, the correlations between various image patches are incorporated into an ordinal regression framework. By iteratively refining a ranking model and relabeling the image patches with respect to their mutual correlations, the label ambiguities can be effectively removed from the training data. Consequently, visual saliency can be effectively estimated by the ranking model, which can pop out real targets and suppress real distractors. Extensive experiments on two public image data sets show that our approach outperforms 11 state-of-the-art methods remarkably in visual saliency estimation.2012 Robust Multichannel Blind Deconvolution via Fast Alternating MinimizationBlind deconvolution, which comprises simultaneous blur and image estimations, is a strongly ill-posed problem. It is by now well known that if multiple images of the same scene are acquired, this multichannel (MC) blind deconvolution problem is better posed and allows blur estimation directly from the degraded images. We improve the MC idea by adding robustness to noise and stability in the case of large blurs or if the blur size is vastly overestimated. We formulate blind deconvolution as an l1 -regularized optimization problem and seek a solution by alternately optimizing with respect to the image and with respect to blurs. Each optimization step is converted to a constrained problem by variable splitting and then is addressed with an augmented Lagrangian method, which permits simple and fast implementation in the Fourier domain. The rapid convergence of the proposed method is illustrated on synthetically blurred data. Applicability is also demonstrated on the deconvolution of real photos taken by a digital camera2012 Scale-Invariant Features for 3-D Mesh ModelsIn this paper, we present a framework for detecting interest points in 3-D meshes and computing their corresponding descriptors. For that, we propose an intrinsic scale detection scheme per interest point and utilize it to derive two scale-invariant local features for mesh models. First, we present the scale-invariant spin image local descriptor that is a scale-invariant formulation of the spin image descriptor. Second, we adapt the scale-invariant feature transform feature to mesh data by representing the vicinity of each interest point as a depth map and estimating its dominant angle using the principal component analysis to achieve rotation invariance. The proposed features were experimentally shown to be robust to scale changes and partial mesh matching, and they were compared favorably with other local mesh features on the SHREC’10 and SHREC’11 testbeds. We applied the proposed local features to mesh retrieval using the bag-of-features approach and achieved state-of-the-art retrieval accuracy. Last, we applied the proposed local features to register models to scanned depth scenes and achieved high registration accuracy.2012 Scene-Oriented Hierarchical Classification of Blurry and Noisy ImagesA system for scene-oriented hierarchical classification of blurry and noisy images is proposed. It attempts to simulate important features of the human visual perception. The underlying approach is based on three strategies: extraction of essential signatures captured from a global context, simulating the global pathway; highlight detection based on local conspicuous features of the reconstructed image, simulating the local pathway; and hierarchical classification of extracted features using probabilistic techniques. The techniques involved in hierarchical classification use input from both the local and global pathways. Visual context is exploited by a combination of Gabor filtering with the principal component analysis. In parallel, a pseudo-restoration process is applied together with an affine invariant approach to improve the accuracy in the detection of local conspicuous features. Subsequently, the local conspicuous features and the global essential signature are combined and clustered by a Monte Carlo approach. Finally, clustered features are fed to a self-organizing tree algorithm to generate the final hierarchical classification results. Selected representative results of a comprehensive experimental evaluation validate the proposed system.2012 Rotation-Invariant Image and Video Description With Local Binary Pattern FeaturesIn this paper, we propose a novel approach to compute rotation-invariant features from histograms of local noninvariant patterns. We apply this approach to both static and dynamic local binary pattern (LBP) descriptors. For static-texture description, we present LBP histogram Fourier (LBP-HF) features, and for dynamic-texture recognition, we present two rotation-invariant descriptors computed from the LBPs from three orthogonal planes (LBP-TOP) features in the spatiotemporal domain. LBP-HF is a novel rotation-invariant image descriptor computed from discrete Fourier transforms of LBP histograms. The approach can be also generalized to embed any uniform features into this framework, and combining the supplementary information, e.g., sign and magnitude components of the LBP, together can improve the description ability. Moreover, two variants of rotation-invariant descriptors are proposed to the LBP-TOP, which is an effective descriptor for dynamic-texture recognition, as shown by its recent success in different application problems, but it is not rotation invariant. In the experiments, it is shown that the LBP-HF and its extensions outperform noninvariant and earlier versions of the rotation-invariant LBP in the rotation-invariant texture classification. In experiments on two dynamic-texture databases with rotations or view variations, the proposed video features can effectively deal with rotation variations of dynamic textures (DTs). They also are robust with respect to changes in viewpoint, outperforming recent methods proposed for view-invariant recognition of DTs.

2012 Solving Inverse Problems With Piecewise Linear Estimators From Gaussian Mixture Models to Structured SparsityA general framework for solving image inverse problems with piecewise linear estimations is introduced in this paper. The approach is based on Gaussian mixture models, which are estimated via a maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization algorithm. A dual mathematical interpretation of the proposed framework with a structured sparse estimation is described, which shows that the resulting piecewise linear estimate stabilizes the estimation when compared with traditional sparse inverse problem techniques. We demonstrate that, in a number of image inverse problems, including interpolation, zooming, and deblurring of narrow kernels, the same simple and computationally efficient algorithm yields results in the same ballpark as that of the state of the art.2012

 

TECHNOLOGY                   : DOT NET

 

DOMAIN                               :IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE  ENGINEERING

                                                                                          

S.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Role of Test Sequence Length in Software Testing for Structural Coverage In this paper, we analyze the role that the length plays in software testing, in particular branch coverage. We show that, on “difficult” software testing Bench marks, longer test sequences make their testing trivial. Hence, we argue that the choice of the length of the test sequences is very important in software testing. 2012
Comparing Semi-Automated Clustering Methods for Persona Development This paper presents an empirical study comparing the performance of existing qualitative and quantitative clustering techniques for the task of identifying personas and grouping system users into those personas. A method based on Factor (Principal Components) Analysis performs better than two other methods which use Latent Semantic Analysis and Cluster Analysis as measured by similarity to expert manually defined clusters 2012
An Autonomous Engine for Services Configuration and Deployment This paper proposes to support the configuration and deployment of services with an automated Closed control loop. The automation is enabled by the definition of a generic information model, which captures all the information relevant to the management of the services with the same abstractions, describing the runtime elements, service dependencies and business objectives. 2012
Automatic Detection of Unsafe Dynamic Component Loadings In this paper, we present the first automated technique to detect vulnerable and unsafe dynamic component loadings. Our analysis has two phases: 1) apply dynamic binary instrumentation to collect runtime information on component loading and 2) analyze the collected information to detect vulnerable component loadings 2012

 

TECHNOLOGY                   : DOT NET

 

DOMAIN                               : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GRID AND  CLOUD  COMPUTING

 

S.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR
Using Rules and Data Dependencies for the Recovery of Concurrent Processes in a Service-Oriented Environment This paper presents a recovery algorithm for service execution failure in the context of concurrent process execution. The recovery algorithm was specifically designed to support a rule-based approach to user-defined correctness in execution environments that support a relaxed form of isolation for service execution. 2012
Business-OWL (BOWL)—A Hierarchical Task Network Ontology for Dynamic Business Process Decomposition and Formulation This paper introduces the Business-OWL (BOWL), an ontology rooted in the Web Ontology Language (OWL), and modeled as a Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) for the dynamic formation of business processes. An ontologized extension and augmentation of traditional HTN, BOWL describes business processes as a hierarchical ontology of decomposable business tasks encompassing all possible decomposition permutations 2012
Detecting And Resolving Firewall Policy Anomalies The advent of emerging computing technologies such as service-oriented architecture and cloud computing has enabled us to perform business services more efficiently and effectively. 2012
ABACS: An Attribute-Based Access Control System for Emergency Services over Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks ABACS for emergency services with security assurance over VANETs. ABACS aims to improve the efficiency of rescues mobilized via emergency Communications over VANETs. ABACS can select the emergency vehicles that can most appropriately deal with an emergency and securely delegate the authority to control traffic facilities to the assigned emergency vehicles. 2011
Information Theoretic Aspects of Users’ Activity in a Wyner-Like Cellular Model This paper proposes an application of multiuser information theory to the study of the uplink of a communication system with Randomly activated users. 2010
Performance Analysis of Cloud Computing Centers Using M/G/m/m+r Queuing Systems In this paper, we requests, we describe a novel approximate analytical model for performance evaluation of cloud server farms and solve it to obtain accurate estimation of the complete probability distribution of the request response time and other important performance indicators. 2012
Enabling Secure and Efficient Ranked Keyword Search over Outsourced Cloud Data In this paper, we define and solve the problem of secure ranked keyword search over encrypted cloud data. Ranked search greatly enhances system usability by enabling search result relevance ranking instead of sending undifferentiated results, and further ensures the file retrieval accuracy 2012
A Secure Erasure Code-Based Cloud Storage System with Secure Data Forwarding We propose a threshold proxy re-encryption scheme and integrate it with a decentralized erasure code such that a secure distributed storage system is formulated. The distributed storage system not only supports secure and robust data storage and retrieval, but also lets a user forward his data in the storage servers to another user without retrieving the data back. 20123
Toward Secure and Dependable Storage Services in Cloud Computing We propose in this paper a flexible distributed storage integrity auditing mechanism, utilizing the homomorphic token and distributed erasure-coded data. The proposed design allows users to audit the cloud storage with very lightweight communication and computation cost. 2012
Optimal Multiserver Con?guration for Pro?t Maximization in Cloud Computing In this paper, we study the problem of optimal multiserver con?guration for pro?t maximization in cloud computing environment. To maximize the pro?t, a service provider should understand both service charges and business costs, and how they are determined by the characteristics of the applications and the con?guration of a multiserver system. 2012
Enhanced data security model for cloud computing Cloud Computing becomes the next generation architecture of IT Enterprise. In contrast to traditional solutions, Cloud computing moves the application software and databases to the large data centers, where the management of the data and services may not be fully trustworthy. This unique feature, however, raises many new security challenges which have not been well understood. In cloud computing, both data and software are fully not contained on the user’s computer; Data Security concerns arising because both user data and program are residing in Provider Premises. Clouds typically have a single security architecture but have many customers with different demands. Every cloud provider solves this problem by encrypting the data by using encryption algorithms. This paper investigates the basic problem of cloud computing data security. We present the data security model of cloud computing based on the study of the cloud architecture. We improve data security model for cloud computing. We implement software to enhance work in a data security model for cloud computing. Finally apply this software in the Amazon EC2 Micro instance 2012
Implementation of MapReduce-based image conversion module in cloud computing environment In recent years, the rapid advancement of the Internet and the growing number of people using social networking services (SNSs) have facilitated the sharing of multimedia data. However, multimedia data processing techniques such as transcoding and transmoding impose a considerable burden on the computing infrastructure as the amount of data increases. Therefore, we propose a MapReduce-based image-conversion module in cloud computing environment in order to reduce the burden of computing power. The proposed module consists of two parts: a storage system, i.e., Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) for image data and a MapReduce program with a Java Advanced Imaging (JAI) library for image transcoding. It can process image data in distributed and parallel cloud computing environments, thereby minimizing the computing infrastructure overhead. In this paper, we describe the implementation of the proposed module using Hadoop and JAI. In addition, we evaluate the proposed module in terms of processing time under varying experimental conditions 2012
VM Management for Cross-Cloud Computing Environment Cloud computing is the set of distributed computing nodes. The distribution of virtual machine (VM) images to a set of distributed compute nodes in a Cross-Cloud computing environment is main issue considered in this paper. This paper will be dealing with the problem of scheduling virtual machine (VM) images to a set of distributed compute nodes in a Cross-Cloud computing environment. To address this problem, an efficient approach for VM management is proposed and implemented in this paper. The result will be used as an effective scheduling guidance for VM scheduling on cloud computing as well as cross cloud computing environment. 2012
Securing cloud computing environment against DDoS attacks Cloud computing is becoming one of the next IT industry buzz word. However, as cloud computing is still in its infancy, current adoption is associated with numerous challenges like security, performance, availability, etc. In cloud computing where infrastructure is shared by potentially millions of users, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks have the potential to have much greater impact than against single tenanted architectures. This paper tested the efficiency of a cloud trace back model in dealing with DDoS attacks using back propagation neural network and finds that the model is useful in tackling Distributed Denial of Service attacks. 2012
Optimization of Resource Provisioning Cost in Cloud Computing In cloud computing, cloud providers can offer cloud consumers two provisioning plans for computing resources, namely reservation and on-demand plans. In general, cost of utilizing computing resources provisioned by reservation plan is cheaper than that provisioned by on-demand plan, since cloud consumer has to pay to provider in advance. With the reservation plan, the consumer can reduce the total resource provisioning cost. However, the best advance reservation of resources is difficult to be achieved due to uncertainty of consumer’s future demand and providers’ resource prices. To address this problem, an optimal cloud resource provisioning (OCRP) algorithm is proposed by formulating a stochastic programming model. The OCRP algorithm can provision computing resources for being used in multiple provisioning stages as well as a long-term plan, e.g., four stages in a quarter plan and twelve stages in a yearly plan. The demand and price uncertainty is considered in OCRP. In this paper, different approaches to obtain the solution of the OCRP algorithm are considered including deterministic equivalent formulation, sample-average approximation, and Benders decomposition. Numerical studies are extensively performed in which the results clearly show that with the OCRP algorithm, cloud consumer can successfully minimize total cost of resource provisioning in cloud computing environments. 2012
Cloud intelligent track – Risk analysis and privacy data management in the cloud computing Cloud computing is a computing platform with the backbone of internet to store, access the data and application which is in the cloud, not in the computer. The biggest issue which should be addressed in cloud computing are security and privacy. Outsourcing data to other companies worries internet clients to think about the privacy data. Most Enterprise executives hesitate to use cloud computing system due to their sensitive enterprise information. This paper provides data integrity and user privacy through cloud intelligent track system. This paper discuss about the previous experiment done on the privacy and data management. The work proposes the Architecture or system which provides intelligent track in Privacy Manager and Risk Manager to address privacy issues which rules the cloud environment. 2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Measurement and utilization of customer-provided resources for cloud computingRecent years have witnessed cloud computing as an efficient means for providing resources as a form of utility. Driven by the strong demands, such industrial leaders as Amazon, Google, and Microsoft have all offered practical cloud platforms, mostly datacenter-based. These platforms are known to be powerful and cost-effective. Yet, as the cloud customers are pure consumers, their local resources, though abundant, have been largely ignored. In this paper, we for the first time investigate a novel customer-provided cloud platform, SpotCloud, through extensive measurements. Complementing data centers, SpotCloud enables customers to contribute/sell their private resources to collectively offer cloud services. We find that, although the capacity as well as the availability of this platform is not yet comparable to enterprise datacenters, SpotCloud can provide very flexible services to customers in terms of both performance and pricing. It is friendly to the customers who often seek to run short-term and customized tasks at minimum costs. However, different from the standardized enterprise instances, SpotCloud instances are highly diverse, which greatly increase the difficulty of instance selection. To solve this problem, we propose an instance recommendation mechanism for cloud service providers to recommend short-listed instances to the customers. Our model analysis and the real-worldexperiments show that it can help the customers to find the best trade off between benefit and cost.

2012 Energy-efficient Virtual Machine Consolidation for Cloud ComputingIn the presence of rising costs for energy, infrastructure, cooling and power supply, Infrastructure-as-a-Service Cloud computing providers are highly interested in increasing the energy efficiency of their hardware- and software architectures. In this article, a novel approach to virtual machine consolidation for saving energy is presented. It is based on energy-efficient storage migration and live migration of virtual machines to take advantage of the lacking energy-proportionality of commodity hardware. Eucalyptus, an open-source clone of the popular Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, is used to implement the proposed approach. Several short- and long-term experiments are presented, demonstrating the potential for energy savings in productive Cloud computing environments. Quality-of-service violations during the consolidation process are addressed.2012 On energy-aware aggregation of dynamic temporal demand in cloud computingThe proliferation of cloud computing faces social and economic concerns on energy consumption. We present formulations for cloud servers to minimize energy consumption as well as server hardware cost under three different models (homogeneous, heterogeneous, mixed hetero-homogeneous clusters) by considering dynamic temporal demand. To be able to compute optimal configurations for large scale clouds, we then propose static and dynamic aggregation methods, which come at the additional cost on energy consumption; however, they still result in significant savings compared to the scenario when all servers are on during the entire duration. Our studies show that the homogeneous model takes four time less computational time than the heterogeneous model. The dynamic aggregation scheme results in 8% to 40% savings over the static aggregation scheme when the degree of aggregation is high.2012 Toward Secure and Dependable Storage Services in Cloud ComputingCloud storage enables users to remotely store their data and enjoy the on-demand high quality cloud applications without the burden of local hardware and software management. Though the benefits are clear, such a service is also relinquishing users’ physical possession of their outsourced data, which inevitably poses new security risks toward the correctness of the data in cloud. In order to address this new problem and further achieve a secure and dependable cloud storage service, we propose in this paper a flexible distributed storage integrity auditing mechanism, utilizing the homomorphic token and distributed erasure-coded data. The proposed design allows users to audit the cloud storage with very lightweight communication and computation cost. The auditing result not only ensures strong cloud storage correctness guarantee, but also simultaneously achieves fast data error localization, i.e., the identification of misbehaving server. Considering the cloud data are dynamic in nature, the proposed design further supports secure and efficient dynamic operations on outsourced data, including block modification, deletion, and append. Analysis shows the proposed scheme is highly efficient and resilient against Byzantine failure, malicious data modification attack, and even server colluding attacks2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Improving public auditability, data possession in data storage security for cloud computingCloud computing is Internet based technology where the users can subscribe high quality of services from data and software that resides solely in the remote servers. This provides many benefits for the users to create and store data in the remote servers thereby utilizing fewer resources in client system. However management of the data and software may not be fully trustworthy which possesses many security challenges. One of the security issues is the data storage security where frequent integrity checking of remotely stored data is carried out. RSA based storage security (RSASS) method uses public auditing of the remote data by improving existing RSA based signature generation. This public key cryptography technique is widely used for providing strong security. Using this RSASS method, the data storage correctness is assured and identification of misbehaving server with high probability is achieved. This method also supports dynamic operation on the data and tries to reduce the server computation time. The preliminary results achieved through RSASS, proposed scheme outperforms with improved security in data storage when compared with the existing methods.2012 Comparing efficiency and costs of cloud computing modelsPublic and private clouds are being adopted as a cost-effective approach for sharing IT resources. Customers acquire and release resources by requesting and returning virtual machines to the cloud. Different service models are proposed for virtual machine resource management. Some public cloud providers follow a t-shirt model for VM resource sizing. A second approach for resource management is based on a time share model. This paper compares the two approaches from the perspective of resource usage for both the service provider and workload owner. Using data from 312 customer applications, we show that the t-shirt model requires 40% more infrastructure than when a finer degree of resource sharing based on time varying resource shares is permitted.  Resource Selection Strategy Based on Propagation Delay in CloudCloud computing is a highly scalable distributed computing platform in which computing resources are offered ‘as a service’ leveraging virtualization. Cloud Computing distributes the computational tasks on the resource pool which consists of massive computers so that the service consumer can gain maximum computation strength, more storage space and software services for its application according to its need. A huge amount of data moves from user to host and hosts to user in the cloud environment. Based on the above two considerations, how to select appropriate host for accessing resources and creating a virtual machine(VM) to execute applications so that execution becomes more efficient and access cost becomes low as far as possible simultaneously is a challenging task. In this paper, a host selection model based on minimum network delay is proposed, the objective is to minimize propagation time of input and output data by selecting nearest host into the network. And finally it minimizes the execution time of cloudlet.2012

 

Popular Posts

Analysis and Impleme

This paper describes the conception and analysis of a unidirectional ...

TDMA SCHEDULE FOR CO

We have presented a TDMA schedule that is suited to ...

CLEAN-SLATE ROUTING

Ad hoc low-power wireless networks are an exciting research direction ...

Towards Privacy-Pres

Today’s location-sensitive service relies on user’s mobile device to determine ...

Towards Statisticall

In certain applications, the locations of events reported by a ...

Sponsors